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History Case Study

A Brief Outline of Indian National Movement (A brief of Vital Events from 1757 to 1947)

Introduction

The freedom struggle of India is a landmark in the entire world history that has shaped the various facets of the timeline of history of India and to a great extent, the dynamics of Europe and European colonialists. Over the centuries many plunders of the Europe have invaded India and plundered over three-hundred trillion dollars since the 17th century. These invasion, interest to colonialize, and proselytize the Indians to Christianity has shaped the history since the beginning of the 16th century by the Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, British and the French. Right from the day of the loss of Battle of Plessey, and till the midnight of 15th August, 1947, India remained as a British Colony and the long 200 years of struggle and revolution at various instances of the historical timeline in a collective and cumulative form has given India independence, sovereignty, and liberty to from its own nation with a new constitution and polity (Chandra 2017). The case study aims to delineate a brief outline of the Indian national movement and the 200 years of penance, mass uprising, freedom struggle, and nationalist movements that have the nation independence in the midnight of 15th August, 1947. We are also providing Honda Europe case study solution.

Discussion

The Battle of Plessey

The contest of conquest over the silk route has given birth to crusade from time to time along with serious tussles of the European nations with the Ottoman Empire. However, when the Ottomans captured Constantinople and various strategic pints near the straits in the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and the Black Sea, trade of spices and textiles had become a day-dream from the Europeans (Singh 2017). This very idea give birth to navigation in search of finding alternative route to India and the South-East Asia. Two explores and navigators started from Spain and Portugal to the East and West respectively by Vasco-di-Gama and Columbus. The former found India and the later discovered America. Using the same route, the Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish, and the British have reached India in search of trade, commerce, business, imperialism, and using the fertile land of India with trillions of wealth, minerals, and produce. Penetrating from the coastal regions of the nation, the Europeans stated to settle factories near the ports, developed manufacturing, and contested to capture the entire trade of India (Mishra 2016). Numerous battles have been fought within the four European nations for trade, colonialize, and take the authority to rule the world’s richest province. However, only the British sustained and outworked the remaining three contenders by deceit, manoeuvre, strong warfare techniques, and most important of all, banking. Robert Clive, a British clerk, came to Bengal in the search for acquiring access to the entire trade of river Ganges, and settling new factories by the bank of the river Hooghly. He came to know about the blooming economy and trade of Bengal which was controlled by the then Nawab of Bengal, at Plessey, Seraj-Ud-Daula. Clive noted that the conquest of Bengal will ouster the other regional powers such as the Marathas and Haidar Ali in the Deccan. The richest province of India was flourished with fish, pepper, cayenne paper, Indigo, poppy seeds, cotton, silk, calico, muslins, and the abundant lands of rice and pulses. Thereafter, by forming alliance with the traitor Mir Jafar and his men, a sudden treason, and sedition has made the defeat of the richest province of India with the hands of mere 50 armed robbers from Britain led by a knave, Robert Clive (June 23, 1757) (Venkatraman 2018).  We are also providing HSBC case study solution.

Battle of Buxar and the Treaty of Allahabad

After the battle of Plessey, the East India Company took charge of governance of Bengal by merely giving some provincial subjects of administration such as health, education, development, while most of the powers were vested with the British. Thus, after the fugitive death of Mir Jafar and his son Miran, Mir Kashim, the ablest ruler of the descents of Alivardi Khan took charge of Bengal by giving the rights to collect revenue to the company of Burdwan, Chittaging, and Midanapore (Gupta 2019). However, due to the independent nature of Mir Kashim, he formed alliance with the ruler of Awadh, Nawab Suja-ud-Daula, and the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II. On the evening of October 22, 1764, the three allied force were defeated by the servant-infantry of the British East India Company. Consequently, in the Treaty of Allahabad (1765) the British took power of the entire province of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa and sent a message to the rest of the Indian rulers in various provinces such as the Maratha, Deccan, Marwar, Rajputs, and the British Parliament that India has now gave in to the British company and the event started official establishment of British colonial rule in India (Chandra et al. 2016).  We are also providing Volkswagen case study solution.

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The Phase of Nationalism

After the event of British victory on Buxar, gradual extermination of the company occurred in the due course of time and the British took more interest in colonializing India in place of merely doing trade and earning profits. The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 that culminated years of slavery, dependence, and colonization draw the course of the nationalist movements in India that gave a huge surge in armed rebellion and chauvinist integration of people across the nation and was expressed in form of rebellion by the soldiers (Gosmani 2017). The insurgency was a signal of rise of nationalism and freedom movement of India in an integrated manner. Down the line, the formation of Indian National Congress (INC) by A.O. Hume in 1885 has arsoned these movements and the forefathers of Indian freedom struggle took charge to ignite the nation with fires of battle of independence and abolition of the century-long colonial rule. Surendranath Banerjee, Rabindranath Tagore, W.C Banerjee, Dadabhai Nourazi, Gopalkrishna Gokhle, Balgangadhar Tilak etcetera have shaped the direction of nation-wide mass movement (Mishra 2016). History case study help offered by Assignmenthelp.us.

The Partition of Bengal

To deal with the massive mass-uprisings, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India partitioned Bengal into two fragments (1905) to halt the progress of the nation and curb down the spirit of accumulating mass-sentiments of exterminating the British Empire from India (Singh 2017).

Roylatt Satyagraha

With the entry of Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian national movement, a mass-movement started to fuse throughout the nation starting with Kheda, Ahmedabad, and Champaran Satyagraha. In 1919, with the enactment of the Rowlatt Act that gave enormous powers with the hands of the colonialists to detain any revolutionary without trail for two years, which made civil uprisings at the Jallianwallabagh ground at Punjab. General Dyer fired at the protestors with cannons and bullets that led to massacre of thousands of unarmed and innocent civilians. Thus, huge set back was faced by the imperialists and tremendous condemnation and exponential growth in civil-disobedience movements started throughout the nation (Mahajan 2020).

Non-Cooperation Movement

Following the mass-movement of 1919-1922, Khilafat and non-cooperation movement dismantled the stability of the British Raj and movements of non-violence and mass-unification stated the foundation of a near-end of the 200 years imperial rule (Dadawala 2016).

The Phase of 1922-1930s

The phase has given rise to several movements such as Salt-Satyagraha (Dandi March), civil disobedience movement, the Roundtable conference and the Government of India Act, 1935(Hänsel 2018).  

Quit-India Movement 

The brave son of India, Subhas Chandra Bose formed All India Forward Bloc in 1939 after seceding from INC and consolidate the extremists from around the country and to give a blow to the British Raj. He formed Indian National Army (INA) in Germany with the help of Adolf Hitler and attacked the British Raj by Azad Hind Forces and their relentless struggle to exterminate British imperialism. However, with the mysterious evanescence of Bose, the INA movement halted. However, in response to the Cripps’s Mission in 1942, Gandhi started a vehement and rampant civil movement claiming a complete freedom and nothing less, which is known as the Quit-India movement that broke the remaining ribs of the British rule that was already broken by the 200 years of colonial defence and slap in the Second World War (Chandra 2017).

The Royal Navy Mutiny

The Royal Navy mutiny is 1946 started with the racial discrimination of the Indian soldiers with the on-board British soldiers and the preceding spirit of the Quit-India movement made a complete knock-out punch to the British rule (Singh 2015).

The partition and the Mountbatten Plan

The cabinet mission plan (1946) proposed an interim-government in India with its free-constitutional rights which was opposed by the fanatic Islamists of the Muslim league that wanted a separate nation, Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten (Mountbatten Plan, June 3, 1947) helped the ideals of Jinnah by giving him accord to secede from India and that was a goodbye blow to India that is still bleeding because of the religion-divide and permanent escalations from the rogue state of Pakistan. Finally, India gained its independence and sovereignty on the night of August 15, 1947 and the 200-year long freedom struggle came to an end (Choudhury 2019).

Conclusion

 The paper delineated a brief outline of the Indian national movement and the 200 years of penance, mass uprising, freedom struggle, and nationalist movements that have the nation independence in the midnight of 15th August, 1947. This freedom struggle is one of the biggest mass-rebellion in the history of the modern society and a battle of the very spirit of independence, sovereignty, liberty, values of a republic, and a story of revamping after 200 years colonial rule.

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References

Chandra, B., 2017, April. The strategy of the Indian National Congress. In The Congress and Indian Nationalism (pp. 80-111). Routledge.

Chandra, B., Mukherjee, M., Mukherjee, A., Panikkar, K.N. and Mahajan, S., 2016. India's struggle for independence. Penguin UK.

Choudhury, S.D., 2019. An Impression of the Advent of Gandhi in Indian National Movement. Available at SSRN 3460537.

Dadawala, D., 2016. An Analysis of The Relationship and Mutual Influence of Literature and Indian National Movement. ZENITH International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research6(2), pp.47-51.

Goswami, S., 2017. The British Empire and Indian nationalism in Rabindranath Tagore’s historical poems and The Land of Cards. In The Routledge Companion to International Children’s Literature (pp. 105-113). Routledge.

Gupta, R., 2019. Gandhi and Women in the Indian Freedom Struggle. Social Scientist47(1–2 (548–549), pp.37-48.

Hänsel, C., 2018. Capitalist Planning? The “Bombay Plan” as Contribution to Economic Debates Within the Indian National Movement, 1927-1945. International Relations6(01), pp.31-39.

Mahajan, V.D., 2020. Modern Indian History. S. Chand Publishing.

Misra, J.P., 2016. Madan Mohan Malaviya and the Indian Freedom Movement. Oxford University Press.

Singh, N., 2015. The Women’s Question: Participation in the Indian National Movement and its impact. Journal of Humanities and Social Science20(4), pp.24-25.

Singh, P.K., 2017. A Probe into the Ideology and Politics of the Extremist Wing of the Indian National Congress (1885–1930). Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences8(4), pp.447-450.

Venkatraman, V., 2018. Women in National Politics and Freedom Struggle. Available at SSRN 3132149.

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