Object oriented programming is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects,” consisting of data in the form of fields and code in the form of procedures. A common feature of objects is that their attached processes can access and modify the object's data fields. If you want to learn about the programs like Ruby, Python, C++, and PHP and get into the roots of the programming language, you need to know about Object-Oriented programming. Here are some of the indispensable details in the programming paradigm.
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What is Object Oriented Programming?
Object-oriented programming (OOPs) is a computer programming model that organizes software design around data and data fields with unique attributes and behavior.
OP concepts focus on the large, complex, and actively updated or maintained program objects that need manipulation. It includes manufacturing and design programs and mobile applications; for example, OOPs are used to manufacture system simulation software.
The organization of an object-oriented program also makes the method beneficial to collaborative development, where projects are divided into groups. Additional benefits of OOPs include code reusability, scalability, and efficiency.
Once an object is identified, it is labeled with a class of objects that defines the kind of data it contains and any logic sequences that can manipulate it. Each distinct logic sequence is known as a method. In addition, objects can communicate with well-defined interfaces called messages.
Every day I meet a few curious students who want instant answers to several questions like Which are the best features of OOPs and why explain? How many types of objects are there in OOPs? What are the different types of object-oriented programming? or the direct - What are the 4 types of OOPs? Before you shoot a similar question, let me say that the answers to all these questions are the same. So let's get the details.
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What Are The 5 OOPs Concepts?
The 5 concepts that rule Object-Oriented Programming include:
- Objects & Classes- Objects are the basic unit of OOPs representing real-life entities. They are invoked with the help of methods. These methods are declared within a class, while a Class is a predefined or user-defined template from which objects are created. It represents properties/methods common to all objects of the same class.
- Encapsulation– It includes binding data and methods in a single unit. It is when each object inside the class keeps its state private.
- Abstraction– As an extension of encapsulation, it showcases only the required information for operations of other objects while hiding the internal details of implementation.
- Inheritance- Objects functioning similarly often share part of the logic but differ in the rest. Inheritance help reuse the data fields and methods through a new class called the child class derived from the parent class to create a hierarchy of classes and implements its unique functionality on its own.
- Polymorphism- Polymorphism is the ability to take more than one form. In Polymorphism, abstract entities are executed in multiple ways. It gives a way to consume a class exactly like the parent class, and each child class continues to keep its methods as they were.
What Are Examples of Object Oriented Programming Languages?
While Simula was awarded the first object-oriented programming language, OOPs today are implemented in different programming languages. However, some programming languages sync with OOPs better than others.
For example, programming languages designed “with” pure OOPs languages treat everything as objects. Other programming languages are designed “for" OOPs but have many included procedural processes.
For example, popular pure OOPs languages include:
Programming languages designed primarily for OOP include:
Other programming languages that pair with OOP include:
- Visual Basic .NET
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What are the Benefits of Object Oriented Programming?
There are several advantages of object-oriented programming. Some of the most common ones include:
- Encapsulation warrants the object to be self-contained, easing up the troubleshooting and collaborative development processes.
- Inheritance makes the codes reusable. It means a team does not need to write the same code multiple times.
- Multiple libraries and reusable code help programmers construct new programs quickly.
- Easily upgradeable and scalable. Programmers can apply system functionalities independently.
- Interface descriptions. Descriptions of external systems are simple due to message passing techniques used for object communication.
- Encapsulation and abstraction make complex code hidden, software maintenance more accessible, and internet protocols protected.
- Polymorphism helps a single function to adapt to the class it is placed in, allowing different objects to pass through the same interface.
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What Are the Disadvantages of Object Oriented Programming?
Many programmers censure object-oriented programming models for multiple reasons. The most significant concern is that OOP never focuses justifiably on computation or algorithms. Additionally, OOP code writing involves complicated procedures and takes a long time to compile.
Alternative methods to Object Oriented Programming include:
- Functional programming. It consists of programming languages like Erlang and Scala, used for telecommunications and fault-tolerant systems.
- Structured or modular programming. It incorporates languages such as PHP and C#.
- Imperative programming. This substitute for Object Oriented Programming concentrates on function rather than models. Some of the best functioning programs include C++ and Java.
- Declarative programming. This programming method involves statements on the task or desired outcome but not how to achieve it. Languages include Prolog and Lisp.
- Logical programming. This method, based chiefly on formal logic and uses languages such as Prolog, contains a set of sentences that express facts or rules about a problem domain. It focuses on tasks that can benefit from rule-based logical queries.
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