The popular sovereignty is actually the principle in which the authority of a particular state and the government are created and well-sustained. It is done by the people’ consents through the representatives that are the elected ones. The different philosophers such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and Jean- Jacques Rousseau have different views on the popular sovereignty. The popular sovereignty further takes up the initiative of expressing a specific concept which does not necessarily reflect or somehow describe a political reality. In this regard, it is mentioned by Benjamin Franklin that in the free governments, all the rulers are the servants and the people are their superiors along with the sovereigns. In the early days, the development of the popular sovereignty developed from the philosophers such as Fransisco Suarez who have become the foundation of Latin America.
The popular sovereignty in the modern sense is a specific idea which dates back to the social contract school that is well represented by John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and Rousseau. Further, the ideals of the general will along with the matured idea of the popular sovereignty. Th core idea is that the rule’ legitimacy or the law is founded on the governed consent. The popular sovereignty is a fundamental tenet of most of the Republics an also in some of the monarchies. Rousseau, Locke and Hobbes were found as the most influential thinker of this specific school. All of the postulating that are selected by the individuals for entering into a social contract with each-other. It is about voluntarily giving up some of the natural freedom to the protect from the dangers. It is also to be noted that whether the men appeared naturally prone to the rapine and violence or the kindness and cooperation. It drags the idea of a legitimate social order emerging when all the liberties along with the duties are quite equal among all the citizens binding the social contract thinkers in terms of the concept of popular sovereignty.
The American culture of politics consists of a number of the core values and the ideals. It is true that all of the Americans do not share the same type of views but it is also true that the huge majority subscribes to the general ideas such as equality, liberty, individualism , democracy , diversity and unity too. The political debates usually tend to be over how best it is to the achieve all of the ideal. It does not on whether the ideals are quite worth having in most of the places.
It is found that liberty is the freedom for people for doing whatever they want0. People usually tend to believe that liberty is actually essential for the personal fulfilment along with happiness. The liberty also should be restrained on few levels for creating a stable society. There is a widely accepted principle of the freedom that says people are free to do whatever they want as long as they do not impinge on the freedom of other people.
Equality on the other hand is the equality under the law due to the fact that two people are not truly equal at all. There can be some Americans that are poorer than the other people and they can have some of the cultural backgrounds that are not similar to others. However, all of the Americans also have the same fundamental rights. In the true sense, the term Equality refers to a number of methods through which people are actually well-treated in the similar manner.
It is found that most of the Americans consider liberty as the economic liberty. It can be said further that people must stay free of doing what they see as fitting in the economic sphere without such interference of the government. During the whole nineteenth century, the economy of America was founded on the Laissez-Faire Capitalism that is an economic system where the no such roles are played by the government in terms of regulating, distributing and producing the goods. In today’ world, people actually want some of the intervention of the government in the whole economy. However, most of the Americans have wanted this particular intervention for being quite limited in the scope.
The political equality is through which people are properly treated in the similar manner in the whole political sphere. It shows that among all of the other things, people have the same status governed by law. In this manner, people get the equal treatment under the very law and people must obey all of the laws irrespective of the religion, the race, the creed or the sexual orientation. In its return, people usually enjoy the same rights as others.
Democracy in the United States or America can be described explicitly as the democracy by the real founding fathers. The founders of the United States have also shared some determination for rooting the American experiment in the values of the natural equality and freedom. In the constitution of the United States , in 1788, there is an elected government provided for protecting the civil rights along with the liberties for some people. The Presidential Democracy is there in the United States. The Presidential democracy is a specific system where people elect the president through fair and free elections.
The president really serves in the form of the head of the state along with the head of the government that control most of the powers of an executive. As a contrast, the parliamentary democracy is further referred to as the representative democracy where there top government can become dismissed, can be appointed by and opposed to the presidential rule. The president serves as both the head of the government and the head of the state being elected by the voters. The modern democracies are usually the predominant representatives in their nature that rely heavily on different forms of actions that are democratic quite directly.
The concept of the liberty among the enlightenment thinkers was that a free individual is quite free in the context of a particular state that provides good stability through all of its laws. The work of John Stuart Mill, named as “On Liberty” has been considered as the first such work to have recognized the differences between liberty being the absence of coercion and an act of freedom. The very concept of liberty has been long stayed as a central aspect of the whole political self-definition in the entire United States. Liberty has been found as the ability of the individuals in terms of having the agency or the control on the own life. This is quite different a conception in terms of liberty that articulates the connection of people to the society in the different manners. This includes few aspects related to life under the social contract.
Equality or the social equality in the true sense is where people having a specific type of isolated group or society have few similar statuses in certain types of respects. In the United States the issues related to the gender and racial equality have becomes extremely prevalent along with being catalyst for most of the political and social reform through feminist and the civil rights movements. Again, the equality of the scope is contrasted often with the outcomes’ equality and both of the concepts stay at the topic of contentious debates in the context of American politics.
The concepts of the equality or the opportunity and the outcomes that are considered as the centre of much consistent debates that are within the context of the American politics. The equality of the scope is a specific state where all of the people are similarly treated being unhampered by the man-made barriers , the preferences and the prejudices except when some specific distinctions are quite warranted. It is an ideal to have the equality of opportunity having ensured that there are some most important jobs going to those persons who are the most qualified ones.
It should also be noted that the chances for the advancement must be quite open to people who are interested. Further, the concept of the equal opportunity has transformed beyond the practices of employment and the way it is applied to the broader areas as college admissions, housing and also voting rights. Again, in the classical sense, scope of equality is aligned closely with other ideas of equality that is under meritocracy and law.
As far as the democracy is concerned, there are two of the variants in democracy such as the representative democracy and the direct democracy. Democracy is sometimes used in the form of liberal democracy that may include the elements as political pluralism, the civil liberties, the equality before the law and the existence of the whole civil society. Democracy is not that explicitly defined through the founding fathers. The founders of the United States have further shared the determination to the core of the American experiment in principle of equality and natural freedom.
The democracy is also the form of a government where all of the eligible citizens acquire their equal say in terms of the decisions which affect all of their lives. Furthermore, democracy allows the people in participating equally and directly or indirectly or through some elected representatives. Democracy is seen in the development, in the proposal and in the creation of the laws having encompassed the economic, the social and the cultural conditions which help in the free and equal practices based on the political determination.
There are some of the variants of the democracy existing. However, there are two of the basic forms both of which concern the way the entire mass of citizens execute all. One such form of democracy is the direct democracy where the citizens are having the active and direct participation in terms of governmental decision- making. There is the other form of democracy that is the representative democracy where the entire masses of citizens stay as the sovereign power. It is where the entire political power is well exercised through the representatives who are elected by the citizens. There are most of the democracies that are called the representative democracies having the concept arising largely from the institutions and ideas developed at the time of European Middle Ages, the American and the French Revolutions along with the Enlightenment.