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Ngo Dinh Diem

Rise To Leadership

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Ngo Dinh Diem

Discuss Ngo Dinh Diem's background, early years and rise to leadership of the Republic of Vietnam.

Ngo Dinh Diem was a well-known political leader of Vietanam who was born in the year 1901 and died in the year 1963.He also served as the president having the dictatorial powers of what had been called then the South Vietnam starting with the year 1955 until assassination. It is said that Diem belonged to one of the noble families of Vietnam. All the ancestors of the 17th century were among the first converts of Vietnam from into the Roman Catholicism. He was on quite in the friendly terms with the imperial family of Vietnam and the by the year 1933, he worked as the minister of Bao Dai. He further resigned in that very year in extreme frustration at the French unwillingness in order to countenance all the legislative reforms. After relinquishing all the decorations and the titles, Diem had spent the later years of his life living quietly in the Hue. Again, in the year 1945, the forces of the communist leader that is Ho Chi Min. He had invited Diem for joining the independent government of Ho in the new declared Democratic Republic of Vietnam. It was done in hope of the presence of Diem that would win the support of the Catholic churches. Then, Diem rejected the very proposal and also went into the exile that was self-imposed after living abroad for the next decade.

In the year 1954, Diem had returned at the request of Bao Dai for serving as the prime minister of a government that was backed by the United States to be proclaimed as the Republic of Vietnam. Bao Dai was defeated by Diem in the referendum of 1955 that was controlled by the government. This ousted the emperor and this made him the president of the South Vietnam. Diem further refused for carrying out the Geneva Accords of 1954 that called for the free elections throughout the entire Vietnam in the year 1956for establishing a national government. It is found that Diem further established such an autocratic regime that was staffed at the highest levels through the members of his own family. 

The United States military and the economic aid assisted Diem being able to re-establish the thousands and hundreds of the refugees beginning from the North of Vietnam to the South. Through the help of his own Catholicism along with the preference, he depicted some for the fellow Roman Catholics which made him quite unacceptable for the Buddhists in the South Vietnam. Also, Diem did not fulfil the promise of the reforms of land during the communist rule. It influenced and appealed the southerners in the form of communist-inspired Viet Cong or the National Liberation Front. This helped in launching a guerrilla war against the government. Furthermore, the military tactics used by Diem shows that it is quite against the insurgency served for deepening the unpopularity of the government along with the isolation.

The imprisonment of Diem killed those people who expressed an opposition to the regime who he further alleged and those were abetting the insurgents of the communist. It further alienated the populace of the South Vietnam notably the Buddhists who protested increasingly the discrimination of Diem against those. All the matters with the Buddhists gradually came to a head during the year 1963 when the forces of the government killed few people at a specific May Rally having celebrated the birthday of Buddha. Later, the Buddhists started staging some large protests through the rallies along with the three monks. A nun had immolated themselves. These were the actions which persuaded the US for withdrawing the support from the Diem along with the generals assassinated him at the time of coup d’etat.

Ngo Dinh Diem is the leader of the Republic of Vietnam starting with the year 1955 to the year 1963. He has been an extremely important figure while studying the war of Vietnam. Diem was quite expected of being that individual who could actually help the United States for defeating the Vietnamese communism. Later, the fate also dictated some other ways. He further had the upbringing which was extremely identical to the leader and the rival of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam named as Ho Chi Minh.

The political landscape in the Indochina was quite altered by the year when Diem returned that was 1954. As, all the agreements reached in the Geneva Conference that called for the Indochina division at the 17th parallel. It identified the state of Vietnam and the DRV quite officially. Diem then called for the reassessment of the Bao Dai regime immediately. He then called for the reform that was left well unanswered. In that place, Diem had formed the own government in Vietnam as a state. The year 1956 had been very important for  Diem , the United States and the South Vietnam. It is the most significant event of transpiring during the time when Diem refused of participating in the election reunification outlined in the 1954 Geneva Agreements.

In such a situation, the North Vietnam was not in the state of beginning the rearming. Again in the year 1956, Diem had restructured all the military forces and developed the Vietnamese Special Forces. It further organized the entire Army of the Republic of Vietnam briefly called the ARVN. The Eisenhower then approved the TERM or the Temporary Equipment Recovery Mission located in the South Vietnam. Also, the ultimate mission’ objective was to inject the additional American Military advisors in the state for developing the newly established ARVN forces and all. The American organizations as the Michigan State University and the MAAG or Military Assistance Advisory Group Vietnam provided an advice with the support to Ngo Diem in the extreme battle against the insurgents of Vietnam. It influenced and appealed the southerners in the form of communist-inspired Viet Cong or the National Liberation Front. This helped in launching a guerrilla war against the government. Furthermore, the military tactics used by Diem shows that it is quite against the insurgency served for deepening the unpopularity of the government along with the isolation.

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