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Lewis Structure

Lewis Structure of Simple Covalent Molecules and Compounds

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Lewis Structure

Question: Explain how to predict and draw the Lewis structure of simple covalent molecules and compounds.

Answer: The Lewis structure formalism helps in showcasing the compound or molecule structure wherein shared type of electrons pairs among the atoms and these are being indicated by the dashes. In such scenario, the non-bonding as well as lone pairs of electrons need to be shown. Moreover, covalent bond two atoms help in sharing the valence electrons as to achieve the electronic configuration of the noble gas. The different noble gases such as Ne, Ar, Kr and He are considered to be stable, as their level of valence is basically filled with many electrons which are possible.

Covalent Bonds as well as Lewis Diagrams of Simple Molecules

The simplest example which can be considered is hydrogen (H) that is considered to be the smallest element in the periodic table with one electron and one proton. Hydrogen can be considered to become stable when it achieves full level of valence such as noble gas which is closest to in the entire periodic table such as Helium (He). These are considered to be the exceptions to octet rule as they require only two electrons for having full level of valence.

Two H atoms can be coming together as well as sharing each of the electrons for creating the covalent kind of bond. The shared type of electrons can be created as the sharing or belonging to either of the atoms and therefore, each of the atoms has two electrons now in the level of valence such as He. The respective molecule which results is H2 and it is considered to be the most abundant kind of molecule in the entire universe.

The Lewis Structure of Diatomic Hydrogen

It is considered to be the process wherein H2 molecule is H:H or H-H. The former is known as Lewis dot diagram and it helps in indicating the fact that there is pair of shared type of electrons among the atomic symbols. On the other, the latter which is known as Lewis structure utilises the dash for indicating pair of the shared type of electrons which will be capable of forming the covalent bond. The more complicated molecules are mainly depicted in the respective way as well which is shown as:The Lewis Dot Diagram for Methane- The Methane, molecular formula CH4 is shown and it can be seen that the electrons are colour coded which helps in indicating the fact that which atoms they belonged to before covalent bonds are being formed. In the respective scenario, the red colour helps in representing the hydrogen as well as blue representing the carbon. The four kinds of covalent bonds are being formed wherein C has octet of valence electrons and each H has two kinds of valence electrons which will be one from carbon atom and the other from hydrogen atom.

There are simple procedures for drawing the simple Lewis Structures:
There are different strategies for determining Lewis Structures for simple kind of molecules which are described as follows:

Writing the structural type of diagram of molecule for clearly showing that which kind of atom is being connected to which as there are different kinds of possibilities exist wherein we usually exist for bonding with central atom

Drawing the Lewis Symbols of the individual kind of atoms in molecule

Bringing atoms together in such a manner which places eight electrons around each kind of atom wherever it is possible

Each kind of pair of shared type of electrons is considered to be the covalent bond that can be represented by the dash

Lewis Structure of Carbon dioxide- The respective figure helps in explaining the entire bond in the CO2 molecule. Each of the bonding in the CO2 molecule wherein it will be starting with six electrons and C with four electrons from C with four black electrons and each bond behind the O atom and the C atom consists of the electrons from O and two of four electrons from C. Figure 2: Lewis Structure of Carbon Dioxide 

In order to achieve the octet for all the three kind of atoms in CO2, the two pairs of electrons need to be shared between carbon as well as each oxygen. As the four of the electrons are included in each bond, double covalent bond is formed. The octet rule is satisfied for the different atoms in the respective case. When the double bond is being formed, there will be requirement of showing all the electrons and double dashes between atoms which show that four electrons are shared. Figure 3: Lewis Structure for carbon Dioxide 

Lewis Structure for carbon Dioxide- Covalent bonds are indicated as dashes and lone pairs of the electrons are shown as the pairs of dots in carbon dioxide as well as each oxygen atom has two lone kind of pairs of electrons which are remaining. The covalent bonds between oxygen as well as carbon atoms each usage of two electrons from oxygen as well as two from carbon. When a proper bond is being formed, it is necessary to understand that achievement of the six electrons of valence aspect are able to share the electron pair which will be suitable in becoming covalent bond in a proper manner.

The arrangement of the atoms in showing the specific kind of connections play a vital role in almost connected to only one other atom and it will be effective in analysing the position of the element in a successful manner. With the help of the Lewis Structure, it is considered to be the valence shell electrons in the respective molecule. It is being utilised for showing how the electrons are being arranged around the individual atoms in molecule and manage the effectiveness in a suitable manner. There should be counting of total number of valence electrons which will be generating and choosing the central electron that will be of determining the number of bonds in molecule successfully. 

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