A. Typical elements
B. Normal elements
C. Transitional elements
D. Inert elements
The answer will be option (C) that means the coinage metals that are Cu (copper), Ag (silver), Au (gold) show the properties of transitional elements.
Coinage metal belongs to the series of elements in the particular group called group 11 in the standard periodic table. On the basis of the electronic configuration of the metals which are specifically of coinage range belong to this very group. The metals possess a transactinide that is very short-lived in nature with duration of 22. 8 seconds that offers half-life to the metals which can only be observed during laboratory experiments and conditions.
The term coinage metal is rigorously used for referring to these metals only however in different cultures the term has often been used multiple metals in the process of coinage for instance lead, zinc and stainless steel and many more.
There are similarities in case of showing patterns while exhibiting the electron configuration like every other group in the periodic table where the shell that is placed at outermost layer defines the chemical behaviour of the elements.
All the metals mentioned above are relatively inert in nature and have to be metal with quality of corrosion resistance quality. These elements possess electoral resistivity which is low in terms of resistance so that they can be easily utilized for the purpose of wiring. Copper among all these metals is the cheapest and it is widely used in various fields. Bond wires that are required for making integrated circuits are generally made up of gold. In case of special application silver and sometimes silver plated copper wirings are used.
These three metals (gold, copper and silver) are very soft in nature as compared to rest of the metals. These metals can easily be impaired while using daily as coins. These precious metals might be very easily abraded. They can be worn away with multiple uses. While the metals are in numismatic functions they ought to be alloyed with different metals in order to avail a greater quality of the coins. The process of alloying makes the coin harder and helps them to acquire the quality of resistance more than before so that it does not get damaged easily.
Now we will look at what typical elements are. The elements present in the periodic table that possess the state of fixed oxidation are called typical elements. The periodic table is segmented into different parts on the basis of the nature of the elements. There are multiple blocks in the table. The elements that are mostly scattered in the P and S block are typical elements. For example, helium, hydrogen, oxygen, lithium are some of the few typical elements. These are also commonly known as third period elements.
The next is normal elements. These are the elements which are commonly present in the s and p block of the periodic table. These are also known as main group elements. This group belongs to the halogen family. The group 17 elements are fluorine(F), astatine( At), Chlorine (Cl), iodine( I), bromine ( Br). The normal electronic configuration of the elements of this group is ns2np5.
It is time to know what transitional metals are. The elements that belong to the groups of 1B through 8B are known as transitional elements or transitional metals. The elements that are present between two completely extremities engaging s and P block are transitional elements. Since the elements show some transitions in the core properties of the very elements while moving from s block to P block through D block, the elements are called transitional elements. In the s block all the elements are metals. In the P block all the elements are non-metals and mostly metalloid while the D block contains elements which show the properties of both metal and non-metal.
Inert elements in the language of chemistry are those elements which do not react chemically. From the thermodynamic point of view a substance is said to be inert in nature when it is thermodynamically unbalanced and unstable yet it gets decomposed at a sluggish and negligible pace. Mostly these elements belong to the group of 8 or 18 that are usually placed at the last column of the table. For example, Helium, Argon, Xenon, Neon, Krypton and Radon are inert elements. They generally exist in the form of gas therefore they are called inert gases.
Now discussing all the properties of the four elements it is clear that coinage metals show most of the properties which certainly resembles the features of transitional elements. Therefore the answer will be option (C) that is coinage metals show the properties of transitional elements.