The blood pressure of a human body is the standard measure and the calculation of the particular pressure which is constant in cardiovascular system while the heart performs the pumping cycle. Blood pressure functions and is controlled by different variable factors. It can change in different direction for having different reasons. Since blood pressure depends on multiple factors everybody does not have the same blood pressure that is why everybody’s blood pressure is not exactly accurate. It can get altered based on the different activities one does throughout a day.
A certain range of blood pressure is there which is considered to be normal. The range should not really go beyond it and when it crosses the range it is considered to be abnormal measure of blood pressure. When the range is not within the range of normalcy the people inflicted with high or low pressure might have different physical problems. The problems might appear both in long term and short term. Therefore body of each individual tries to stay in a stable position through the process called homeostasis.
Usually an automated monitor is used as a device to measure blood pressure and sometimes it is measured manually by the usage of stethoscope. Sometimes blood pressure is measured through the help of sphygmomanometer. It has been aligned with two values for example 110/70 mmHg which is actually measured in millimetres of mercury.
The number that is mentioned at the first part which is 110 mmHg in the instance that has been provided earlier is the blood pressure only when the heart is contacted and the number which is mentioned in the latter part of the example which is 70 here is blood pressure between two contractions. Hence it is the calculation of the pressure during the time when a contraction has just happened but just before the approaching contraction.
The blood pressure that is prevalent in human body is constantly under vigilance and is therefore adjusted and controlled by the body itself. The autonomic nervous system controls the regulation of short term blood pressure. Baroreceptors are parts of human body that functions in detecting the changes that occur in the blood pressure. The monitoring of the blood pressure is constantly performed by the device present near the heart called Baroreceptors. These act as special receptors which can trace the alteration and regular changes that occur in the blood pressure of human body. These receptors are submerged into the walls of blood vessels. Most significant and vital Baroreceptors are contained by the aorta. The important Baroreceptors are also found in carotid sinus because these receptors act as monitoring devices as examine the fluctuation of blood pressure. The data that the receptors collect is transmitted to the central nervous system. In order to be more accurate it can be said that the data or the signal is transmitted to center of the cardio regulatory which is present in the medulla oblongata.
If the pressure of blood with the aorta increases because of the activity one does the walls that protect the arteries are stretched immediately and stimulated in a very active way inside the baroreceptors. The data is forwarded via nerves to cardio regulatory center inside the medulla which is initiated with the response of mechanism that finally reduces the blood pressure to normalcy.
Parasympathetic nervous system is effective in decreasing the heart rate which is why the sympathetic stimulation must be shut off in order to lessen the heart rate and by stroking volume. As a result the cardiac output is reduced and the blood pressure is decreased. And since it is certain that baroreceptors can identify whether the pressure is high or low therefore it becomes easier for the cardio regulatory center from within the medulla to reduce sympathetic action to the vessels. It definitely leads to vasodilatation resulting in reduction of the summation of the peripheral resistance that also helps in decreasing the blood pressure.
The baroreceptors function the opposite way when exactly the opposite to this situation arrives. The fall of the blood pressure is detected by the baroreceptors within the aorta and carotid sinus. During the time of the fall of blood pressure the actions that are transmitted to the cardio regulatory center of medulla becomes weak. Hence in this situation the blood pressure is needed to be raised. In order to raise it the body automatically causes a raise in activity of the sympathetic nerve which is carried to the SA node that results in firing more number of times with less intervals. That eventually increases the heart rate. This generates the force in the heart muscle leading the raise in the stroke volume. Naturally with the rise in heart rate along with the stroke volume cardiac output also increases. That indicates the increase in the blood pressure.
It ultimately results in rising in the sympathetic input transmitted to blood vessels that helps in smoothening the muscle for contraction. For this it causes vasoconstriction. It is obvious that with the appearance of the vasoconstriction the summation of the peripheral resistance increases automatically. Therefore ultimately the blood pressure increases.
All the discussion above has the complete focus on the short term regulation of blood pressure. It is completely controllable by the active participation of the baroreceptors. Baroreceptors are not only active in examining whether the pressure is high or low it also helps in dictating the condition of the pressure according the convenience and the need of the respective human body. However it should be mentioned that it is not possible for baroreceptors to control long term blood pressure. In order to make the baroreceptors triggered, it needs to be reset once again when a complete circle of pressure is reinstated.