Acetals are the molecules which are derived from a ketone or aldehyde group and are also chemically important for the carbohydrate synthesis. The simple carbohydrates utilize the acetal formation mechanism for making more complex carbohydrates. Furthermore, acetals are the organic compounds which are classified as diether products. These are formed at the time of aldehyde or ketone which react with alcohol having the presence of an acid compound as catalyst.
There are in total seven steps which are involved in the acetal formation. The steps are as follows:
Step one- In the first step, the carbonyl group is protonated on the ketone molecule having used the proton from an acid catalyst. The protonation refers to the transfer of the proton to a molecule or an atom to form a bond.
Step two- In this step an alcohol is used to perform a nucleophilic attack on the product formed in step one. Notably, a neucleophile is a particular species which donates the electron pair to form a chemical bond.
Step three- This step is called the deprotonate step where the protone is removed and the product is formed in step three. A hemiacetal is a different type of molecule that is formed when an alcohol is properly added to an aldehyde.
Step four- Here, a hemiacetal is used for protonating the alcohol group having used the hydronium ion. It will further ensure that the alcohol will be much eager to leave the molecules in the step number five.
Step five- The electron pairs are moved on the product from the other oxygen atom in order to form a double bond. This is collaborated with bump and the outcome is that when the alcohol group leaves, it is the formation of a ketone that is protonated and there is loss of water too.
Step six- In this step the neucleophile bonds with an electrophile.
Step seven- For the completion of this step, the structure on the right has to be converted to the acetal product where a proton should be lost.