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HIM 410 Health Care System

Published : 24-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10

Question:

Explain two ways the use of concepts of the developmental origins of life and health can influence adult morbidity.
 
Describe two challenges to address the upstream risk and protective determinants of health in current health policies and programs in the U.S. or in other countries
 
Two suggestions for improving child health that can have a long-term benefit on population health for one chronic disease and explain why

Answer:

Explain two ways the use of concepts of the developmental origins of life and health can influence adult morbidity

  • Environment in which the fetal and infant growth is poor is followed by an environment for adults determining high risk for  heart diseases- During different stages of gestation if the fetus undergoes undernutrition it results in different phenotypes. This is linked to adaptations that associate with hormonal changes in placenta and fetus. Therefore, the insulin and glucose relationship and that between growth hormones and IGF are reprogrammed leading to metabolic, structural and functional changes and increasing the risk of coronary heart disease in adult life
  • Early developmental effects on the brain structure are found to have profound effects on its function in later life- poor motor development initiate the early damage the consequences are manifested in adult stage as poor attention in class and behavioural damage (Hanson & Gluckman, 2015)

Describe two challenges to address the upstream risk and protective determinants of health in current health policies and programs in the U.S. or in other countries

  • Addressing the social determinants of health (SDH) is the major challenge. The health policies in US are ill-suited to the local context. It does not address the nuances of SDH. There is a need of better engagement with the policy analysts and public health
  • The US health problems have a changing nature such as high risk behaviour, environmental hazards, chronic illness, ethnicity, substance abuse and violence and socioeconomic status and responding them is a key challenge (Bauer et al., 2014)

Two suggestions for improving child health that can have a long-term benefit on population health for one chronic disease and explain why

Although cardiovascular changes are manifested in and severely affect the adult stage the process of atherosclerosis begins in early childhood. These can be easily prevented by strict adherence to the healthy lifestyle. The obesity, hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, are identifiable risk factors that accelerates the atherosclerotic process. Therefore, the two suggestions for improving child health that have the long-term benefits on population health for cardiovascular disease are-

  • Nutrition-good nutrition in early life has profound health benefits. It has the chance of decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases by ameliorating the preventable risk factors
  • Breastfeeding- has several benefits on infants. Breastfeeding for first 12 months of infants decreases the risk of obesity in future (Karnik & Kanekar, 2015)

References

Bauer, U. E., Briss, P. A., Goodman, R. A., & Bowman, B. A. (2014). Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA. The Lancet, 384(9937), 45-52.

Hanson, M. A., & Gluckman, P. D. (2015). Developmental origins of health and disease–global public health implications. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 29(1), 24-31.

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2015). Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis. Int J Prev Med, 2012. 3 (1), 1-7.

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