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The term history is derived from the Greek word history, which means "to learn or know by investigation." We invite you to examine, argue, dig further, and question in the sections that follow. History is not fixed. It's changeable. When any person interacts with it, it evolves and expands, becoming richer and more complicated. Knowing history gives you power. An event is only the most recent swirl of an ever-expanding surge that may have begun eddying outwards hundreds of years ago. A person who "sees" events is able to harness the force of the complete voyage of that wave.
Course Name: - HIST23 American History
Location: - United States
Unit code: - HIST23
Study Level- Undergraduate
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The land represented by the entire United States had, obviously, been found before Christopher Columbus' expeditions, maybe numerous times. When Columbus landed, he discovered a New World populated by peoples who had most likely originated on the Asian continent. These initial occupants most likely came 20,000 to 35,000 years ago as part of a sequence of migrations from Asia to North America across the Bering Strait. The indigenous people (usually known as Indians) had expanded and colonized all of the New World by the period the first Europeans arrived. The foods as well as other available resources in each physiographic area influenced the sort of society that developed there.
Fish and sea mammals, for instance, provided the majority of coastal peoples' food supply, however the acorn was indeed a staple for California Indian people; plant life and wild game (particularly the American bison, or buffalo) offered for Plains Indians; as well as small-game fishing and hunting (based on regional resources) supplied for Midwestern and Eastern American Indian groups. These meals were complemented by corn (maize), which was a staple diet for Southwest Indians. The acquisition of these foods required the use of fishing, hunting, plant and berry picking, and agricultural skills, the application of which was dependent on the food resources available in certain places.
Food and other basic commodities have influenced the material culture of the various regional tribes. All Indians employed human carriers to move things; dogs were often used to pull sleds or travois; and rafts, boats, and canoes were used when water facilities were available. The horse, which was introduced by the Spanish in the early 16th century, was rapidly accepted by the Indians. Notably, it became popular among the Great Plains' buffalo-hunting Indians.
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House styles were used to differentiate American Indian cultural groupings, among other things. The Eskimos (called Inuit in Canada) created dome-shaped ice houses (igloos) in what would become Alaska; rectangular plank houses were created by Northwest Coast Indians; earth and skin lodges and tepees were created by plains and prairie tribes; flat-roofed and often multistorey houses were created by some Pueblo Indians of the Southwest, and barrel houses were created by the Northeast Indians. Clothing, or lack thereof, differed according to a native group, as did crafts, weaponry, and tribe economic, social, and religious norms.
There were probably around 1.5 million American Indians in what is now the continental United States at the time of Columbus' arrival, however, estimates vary widely. To examine the significance and influence of the American Indian on the later history of the United States in any meaningful sense, one must first grasp the distinguishing characteristics of Native American peoples, such as those described above.
However, it can be claimed that the American Indians as a whole had a significant impact on the civilisation that was transferred from Europe to the New World. Among the more apparent general gifts of the Indians to their European conquerors are meals and medicines, products of manufacture, ways of cultivating certain crops, military skills, vocabulary, rich folklore, and ethnic infusions. One of the most terrible episodes in American history is the lengthy and savage westward-moving battle caused by "white" expansionism and Indian opposition.
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The English colonization of North America was just one episode in the wider tale of European global expansion. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to advocate foreign exploration and colonization, commencing with a journey to Porto Santo off the coast of West Africa in 1418. By 1487, the Portuguese had made it all the way to Africa's southernmost point, establishing commercial posts at Arguin, Sierra Leone, and El Mina. Vasco da Gama circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope and sailed along Africa's eastern coast in 1497, laying the framework for Portugal's subsequent economic conquest of India. When Pedro lvares Cabral stumbled over the coast of Brazil on his way to India in 1500, Portuguese influence had spread to the New World as well.
Despite initially trailing behind the Portuguese in navigation and exploration, the Spanish soon bridged the gap in the decades following Columbus' trips to America. They attracted the fascination and envy of the European world, first in the Caribbean and later in dramatic conquests of New Spain and Peru. France, preoccupied with European battles to maintain its own territorial integrity, was unable to commit as much time or effort to colonial expansion as Spain and Portugal. However, French fishermen built an outpost in Newfoundland in the early 16th century, and in 1534, Jacques Cartier started exploring the Gulf of St. Lawrence. By 1543, the French had abandoned their aspirations to conquer the New World's northeast. France tried to create colonies in Florida and Brazil in the latter half of the 16th century, but both attempts failed, and by the end of the century, Spain and Portugal were the only two European powers to have founded viable colonies in America.
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Despite their desire to replicate the triumphs of the Spanish and Portuguese, the English fell far behind in their colonial attempts. The English had a theoretical claim to the North American continent as a result of John Cabot's 1497 trip off the coast of Nova Scotia, but they lacked the resources and willingness to back up that claim throughout the 16th century. As a result, England depended on private trade corporations, which were primarily concerned with economic rather than territorial growth, to safeguard her interests in the growing European continent.
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