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PHI 180 Ethics

Published : 30-Aug,2021  |  Views : 10


Selecting a Topic You will choose a topic that relates to the issue of "Food Ethics" (as defined in the in-class and outside reading assignments). 

Research Question or Problem
During the in-class brainstorming session, we will review possible ways of addressing the issue without repeating arguments already made in the readings. You will then be able to find an aspect of "Food Ethics" that you feel strongly about, have concerns about, or simply have questions about. Through your research, you will be able to further delve into that particular topic, eventually narrowing down to one specific argument. 

Purpose of the Assignment
The research essay is intended to create an argument about one aspect of "Food Ethics," not simply give an overview of information. While your research will begin by collecting information, the essay itself must then analyze that information and present a particular point of view. It must also look at both sides of the issue, taking context into account. In other words, look at what is happening, but then think about why. 

The essay must be written in scholarly manner. Once you have conducted your research you will be an expert on that particular aspect of "Food Ethics" and you should write the essay .vith that in mind 



The term ‘food ethics’ is concerned with the moral consequences of the food choices, made by human beings and animals as well. In other words, it refers to the type of ethical consumerism. It covers all the aspects of food production and its consumption. However, the common concerns related to food ethics are damage caused to the environment, food shortages, exploitive practices, unintended effects to the policies of food and others (Tscharntke et al.).

The report throws light on the ethical issues for human nutrition in the global food security’s context and its sustainable development. It further consists of an annotated bibliography and the outline of the research essay, which will give detailed explanation regarding the topic.

Thesis Statement

Modern society is facing serious issues related to food security and ethics. The report deals with the ethical issues for human nutrition in the context of global security. The society is in a dilemma on how to provide plentiful nutrition to all and that too, in a safe and secured manner.

Annotated Bibliography

Jessica Fanzo. Ethical issues for human nutrition in the context of global food security and sustainable development, 2015.

Jessica Fanzo shares her views and opinions regarding the ethical issues faced in the context of global food security and sustainable development, in her journal. According to her, one of the greatest dilemmas of modern time is how to secure as well as provide nutritious and healthy food to all. It can be done in an environmentally safe and sustainable manner, however, keeping the burdens into considerations. The burdens here include, malnutrition, under nutrition, obesity, overweight and deficiencies in micronutrient. The security of food ensures that the world is manufacturing as well as consuming adequate calories in mass, for reducing the hunger and safeguarding the survival of human beings and animals as well. This is opposed to the goal which includes the nutrition for the development and well being.

It is important to consider the questions related to food ethics, which revolve around combining the nutrition in the paradigm of food security. The economic, societal, health and environmental costs would be substantial, if the course of action is kept unchanged in feeding the world. Solving this problem is a major concern for the society today, which permeates through the moral and ethical implications. The key issues considered on the ethical aspects include; the societal decision making factors, defining the food security values which is impactful towards the nutritious outcomes, ethical trade-offs in between the environmental sustainability and individual dietary, meeting the nutritional needs of each and every individual and others. These complex issues highlight the need for articulating the broader area of ethical landscape for nutrition debate in the context of global food security (Fanzo).

Inadequate nutrition has been the major problem all across the world. It contributes to the early deaths of individuals, pregnant women, infants, young children, physically impaired and often disturbs the physical as well as mental development of the young children. It is important to get the right nutrition at the right time. Inadequate care and disabled environment can cause severe impact on the nourishment of infants and young children. It can lead to obesity, harmful impact on health, stop growth and development of infants. Moreover, it results into poor health at adulthood, which not only affects the individual but also in the social as well as economic development of the nation. It has been seen that in many countries young children dies due to malnutrition and improper food intake.

Today, the world is becoming competitive in every aspect, yet the countries are witnessing huge burden of malnutrition. As per UNICEF, WHO and World Bank, around 2.1 billion people are suffering from obesity and overweight, globally. An estimation of 41 million children is overweight and that too under the age of five. Around two third of the children belongs from the countries of lower and middle income. The world is facing a tough challenge in this aspect as the growing overweight rates leads to various non communicable diseases like diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and others. Deficiencies in essential minerals, vitamins and proteins greatly affect the health of women and young girls. The groups which are vulnerable to the malnutrition include the ones who require additional requirements of nutrients. This specifically consists of young girls and boys, adolescent girls, lactating and pregnant women.

In the field of nutrition, it is highly important and necessary to understand that who is the most affected one in the nutrient requirements. It can be in both forms, that is, under nutrition and overweight as well. Moreover, it is imperative to gain an understanding of the vulnerability drivers and its consequences as causes as well. In addition to this, the discriminatory perceptions and mentalities can also lead to such issues. It highly impacts the need and abilities of the disadvantaged as well as vulnerable groups, which in turn affects the food and nutrition security. In order to reduce the issues, several food ethics factors can be taken into consideration.

Firstly, the production attempts to keep pace with the current demand. Increased demand has caused serious consequences to the human health as well as climate change. Overconsumption of food has caused damage to the ethical conflicts in food security. The modern day world is still facing serious issues like seasonal hunger periods, famines and others. Young children, men and women are dying out of hunger and malnutrition. On the other hand, some sections of the society, especially those who belong to the “higher class” get proper accessibility to adequate amount of nutrients in their daily diet. This presents a clear picture of ethical dilemma between the people who starve and the ones who keep themselves up with their luxury diet.

Secondly, the high value foods are critically important for the development of human health. However, their accessibility and distribution is not at all equitable. There is an imbalance between the food systems which needs to be clearly addressed. The families with comparatively lower income do not get the accessibility to high quality foods due to their high price. Many governmental agencies have taken initiatives organized programs in the attempt of reducing this imbalance of nutrition. This is high time that the government introduces some alternative methods for eradicating this menace from the world.

Thirdly, this issue is not just an agricultural, nutritional and environmental argument. There are some factors also which affects animal life. Animal consumption is a matter of the welfare of animals, taste, social standing as well as consumer preferences. According to Shindell, the society consumes higher amount of meat products, poultry and seafood. This has been promoted over the generations and today, the world consumes huge amount of animal products. The ever developing world loves to eat this way, which is leading to the increased demands for animal products. People who cannot afford these “higher status” foods are often shunned and stigmatized in the societies. Therefore, it is high time government and agencies start implementing several initiatives, in order to eradicate malnutrition from the world.


To conclude, the world is facing the major issue of food security and it is increasing day by day. The nutrition factors are often been forgotten by the manufacturers. Many a times, the food is produced in an unjustified manner. In many countries, people still lack the basic resources due to unequal distribution of income. There have been many debates regarding food security and poverty. In order to overcome poverty, government needs to take more steps towards the betterment of the society, in order to eradicate malnutrition from the world. If the basic requirements and causes of malnutrition are addressed in a better way, more effective resources and better collaboration within the governments can prove beneficial. Without the ethical standards and strong values in setting nutrition as the highest priority, achieving the global security in food will remain sluggish.


Fanzo, Jessica. "Ethical issues for human nutrition in the context of global food security and sustainable development." Global Food Security 7 (2015): 15-23.

Shindell, Drew, et al. "Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security." Science 335.6065 (2012): 183-189.

Tscharntke, Teja, et al. "Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification." Biological conservation 151.1 (2012): 53-59.

Bommarco, Riccardo, David Kleijn, and Simon G. Potts. "Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security." Trends in ecology & evolution 28.4 (2013): 230-238.

Brown, Lester R. Outgrowing the Earth: the food security challenge in an age of falling water tables and rising temperatures. Taylor & Francis, 2012.

Grote, Ulrike. "Can we improve global food security? A socio-economic and political perspective." Food Security 6.2 (2014): 187-200.

Porter, John Roy, et al. Chapter 7: Food security and food production systems. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Savary, Serge, et al. "Crop losses due to diseases and their implications for global food production losses and food security." (2012): 519-537.

Shiferaw, Bekele, et al. "Crops that feed the world 10. Past successes and future challenges to the role played by wheat in global food security." Food Security 5.3 (2013): 291-317.

Van Huis, Arnold, et al. Edible insects: future prospects for food and feed security. No. 171. Food and agriculture organization of the United nations (FAO), 2013.

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