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PBHE209 Wellness Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Published : 04-Oct,2021  |  Views : 10


1.In one or two paragraphs, compare a leading cause of death and health determinant of another country to that of the United States. Very briefly design a social-ecological template to address ways to change behavior. As you do this, note the similarities and differences to addressing these issues in the both countries. 

2.Identify a culture you may work with (such as older adults, gay men, Latinos, or single parents). In one or two paragraphs, define how you can respect their cultural differences as well as use these differences in culture, needs, perceptions, barriers, and traditions. Outline how your program would target their specific cultural health needs at three levels of the social-ecological model. What social marketing technique would you use?


1.One of the leading causes of death in USA is heart diseases. A large number people for about 610,000 people are found to face death that accounts for about 1 in every 4 deaths in USA. The main health determinants that result in cardiovascular disorders are high blood pressure, diabetes and prediabetes smoking, being overweight as well as obese, having family history with such disease, unhealthy diet, high blood cholesterol, being physically inactive and many others. Apart from the developed country of United States, a developing country like India is also found to suffer from massive number of deaths from cardiovascular diseases as well (Singh et al., 2013). About 60 % of deaths in India have been the outcome of the non communicable disease with 26% being the result of heart diseases. Deaths are mainly due to a number of risk factors which are quite different form United States. The main health determinants in India are tobacco smoking accounting for about 15% of the deaths. Others are 4.3 liters of pure alcohol which is consumed by each person and about 21.1% suffering from hypertension resulting in heart attack, kidney diseases and others (Prabhakaran, Jeemon & Roy, 2016).


Heart diseases in USA

Heart diseases in India

Food habit

Improper food habits and improper diet maintenance. Therefore, dieticians should be consulted and proper dietary habits should be incorporated both at an interpersonal level and individual level

Diet is less likely to be a contributing factor for heart diseases in India. Proper including of diet is however instructed both at an interpersonal level and individual level


Smoking rate should be reduced and controlled by proper policies by government

Tobacco smoking should be reduced. Increasing the tax associated with cigarettes and others should be implemented by government on the political level

Alcohol consumptions

Researchers are less likely to consider alcohol as the determinant in United states. They mainly stress on diabetes and cholesterol as determinants. Proper diabetes management, regular checkups, and cholesterol maintenance should be done under healthcare professionals at an community level and at organizational level. Interpersonally, an individual should be educated to know what the best method for his own health

Pure alcohol has proved to be the main contributor and therefore government should try to restrict the sale of pure alcohol. Diabetes although not the main reason for heart disease in India should be controlled and kept under check.

 2.Ageism is a culture that is often found to be displayed by different individual surrounding an old man or an old woman. It mainly describes the culture of stereotyping as well as discriminating the individuals as well as the groups of people depending on their age. Just like racism as well as sexism, it harms the quality lives of old people (Calasanti, 2016). It contains three main connected elements which need to be addressed to make such people develop a better quality life. These are prejudicial attitudes towards old people, old age and aging procedure. The next is discriminatory practices against them and the third is institutional practices and policies that enhance the stereotyping of older people.

Health promotion program:

SEM Level



· The old individual should take initiatives at the individual level by speaking up for his rights, for any violence occurring over him or any mental harassment. He should participate in every activity and would not allow anyone committing any crime over him.


· The old individual should develop and engage himself in various social networks like inviting groups of friends and talking with them, participating in social activities involving senior citizens and others. The program should give them scope to be more socially engaged in their religious practices, with friends and family members, attend picnic, social gatherings and others


· A properly connected service should be initiated where the older people will be directly able to communicate with their wishes, demands, issues they face and others with the community. Different informational networks should be founded for their benefits. Moreover community clubs, associations and other such groups should be encouraged to make such people socially included (Allen, 2016).


· Different organizations where they work for, or those organizations providing them services should have a clear knowledge about the different do’s and don’ts of ageism. Proper rules and recommendations should be provided to them

Policy/Enabling Environment

· The government should introduce policies about proper care for old people and how to protect them from ageism. Moreover the policies should be simple so that old people can also self manage themselves. Strict punishments should be incorporated for any perpetrators or law breakers.


Allen, J.O., 2016. Ageism as a risk factor for chronic disease. The Gerontologist, 56(4), pp.610-614.

Calasanti, T., 2016. Combating ageism: How successful is successful aging?. The Gerontologist, 56(6), pp.1093-1101.

Prabhakaran, D., Jeemon, P. and Roy, A., 2016. Cardiovascular diseases in India. Circulation, 133(16), pp.1605-1620.

Singh, G. M., Danaei, G., Farzadfar, F., Stevens, G. A., Woodward, M., Wormser, D., ... & Di Angelantonio, E. (2013). The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis. PloS one, 8(7), e65174.

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