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ISEM 530 Systems Engineering Principles

Published : 13-Oct,2021  |  Views : 10


1: Consider that for much of this semester we will be talking “Object Oriented” (O-O) primarily in the form of “Object Oriented Analysis” and “Object Oriented Design”. 

To answer the following questions, use any available resource, including Google, Google Scholar,, or other selected sources.  Research the topics of Object Oriented Programming, Analysis and Design. Answer the following specific questions:

a. What is the definition of “Object Oriented (O-O)”?

b. How is O-O related to (same, different?) “Structured Methods”? Compare and contrast these two methods. (Hint: Structured Methods came first. It is possible that dissatisfaction with Structured Methods and the resulting software products led to some of the motivation for O-O).
c. What are the key characteristics / attributes of O-O? (Hint: Characteristics such as “Inheritance” and “Encapsulation” should be identified). Please 
i) Identify each key characteristic / attribute that you find, 
ii) Define each key characteristic, and 
iii) Explain each key characteristic. 

d. What is the History of O-O? 
i. How / where / when did it start? 
ii. Who were the original authors of the idea? 
iii. What was the original motivation for O-O? 
iv. How did an interest in Object-Oriented Programming lead to O-O Analysis and Design? 
v. How did we get to O-O Analysis and O-O Design, which are the primary focus of the ISEM 530 course?

2: Find a definition of “System” other than from your textbook and explain it in your own words. Provide a reference to the source of the definition.

3: What is the difference between a “System” and a “Subsystem”?

4: Find a definition of “System Analysis” other than from your textbook and explain it in your own words. Provide a reference to the source of the definition.
5: Find a definition of “System Design” other than from your textbook and explain it in your own words. Provide a reference to the source of the definition.

6: What is a “System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)”?

7: Describe the similarities and differences between “Predictive” SDLC and an “Adaptive” SDLC. What do they have in common, and what are key differences?

8: One example of an “Adaptive” SDLC is the “Spiral Life Cycle Model”. In as few sentences as possible, explain how this model works. How would you explain this to a friend?

9:  What is the “Unified Process” (UP) and the Unified Modeling Language (UML)? (Hint: UML is used extensively in our textbook).

10:  What are “Agile Modeling” principles, as defined by the “Manifesto for Agile Development”?

11: Please “fill in the blanks” on the following table, summarizing in your own words the key definitions of Methodologies, Models, Tools and Technique. Please try to highlight the differences between each.

12: The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used in our textbook. UML introduces some new and potentially unknown terms and diagrams. To get familiar with “UML” style diagrams, please fill in the following table: 
13: Research “Work Breakdown Structure” (WBS), which is mentioned in Chapter 9. Please research and provide a formal definition for WBS. (Note: please provide your references).

14: We will discuss “Use Cases”. What information is provided by either a list format use case or a use case diagram?
15: The SDLC Core Process 3 is essentially “Systems Analysis”, where you Gather detailed information, define requirements, prioritize requirements, develop user-interface dialogues and evaluate requirements with users. A key repeating term here is “requirement”. With that in mind, please research and provide answers to the following questions about “requirements”. (Note: Do NOT just repeat what you find in the textbook).
16: What is “Project Management”?
17: What are the primary responsibilities of a “Project Manager”?
18: Who are the primary Stakeholders in a typical Project??
19: Go online and find the “PMBOK”. What is the PMBOK? What are its primary contents?


1a: Object Oriented (O-O) is defined as the use of a methodology on the basis of various types of objects and the execution of the actions as per the manipulation and control of these objects.

b: Structured methods are the traditional approaches that are used in order to write down a particular code or program. Programmers in case structured methods break down the problem in various sub-sets to write a code for every individual problem. Object oriented method is a successor to the structured method to ease the software analysis and design. Structured methods lay more focus on the process whereas object oriented methods keep data as the primary focus. The former makes use of a top-down approach whereas latter uses bottom-up approach. Structured methods provide lesser flexibility; abstraction and more complexity which is resolved with the use of object oriented methods (Asagba, 2008).

2c: Key characteristics and attributes of O-O are as described below:

  • Encapsulation: It is defined as the mechanism in which the data along with the various methods or functions are wrapped together in one single unit. It is also termed as data hiding in O-O as the contents of a particular class remain hidden from other classes.
  • Inheritance: It is defined as the characteristic of O-O that allows acquiring of the properties of a particular class by another class. It allows the management of information in a hierarchical order (Snyder, 2014).
  • Abstraction: It is the attribute of O-O that provides the users with the information on the functionality and hides the implementation details. The details regarding the activities performed by the object are provided to the users.
  • Polymorphism: It is defined as the characteristic of O-O that allows a particular object with the ability to take up several different forms. For example, parent class object gets the ability to refer to an object of a child class.

d: Object Oriented was introduced in the early 1960s in MIT and a first programming language under this category was invented with the name as SIMULA. It was used for simulations and was created by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl. Alan Kay at Xerox Parc further developed the idea and used Smalltalk as an object oriented programming language in the personal computer called Dynabook. Object Oriented Analysis and Design were not accepted as formal terms until 1982 when Grady Booch published a first paper on the same. 1980s was the period when Object Oriented Analysis and Design began to evolve and were being accepted by technocrats and researchers (Larman, 2005).

2: A System is defined as a collection of several components and objects that are linked together in some way or the other in order to achieve a particular goal. There are various characteristics that are associated with a system such as interaction, interdependence, integration and a central objective. Some of the essential elements of a system include input, output, environment, processing, interfaces and control (Tezu, 2013).

3: A System is an interdependent group of items that have a regular interaction with each other leading to the formation of a unified whole. Sub-System on the other hand is the derivative of a larger system. It is a set of elements that comprise of the components of a larger system and may act as an independent system.

4: System Analysis is defined as a process in which a particular system is studied by categorizing and classifying it into several different components to understand the level of interaction, purpose and details of the system and its components. There are several techniques that have been defined for the purpose of system analysis to identify the elements that are involved along with their utility and patterns (Subramanian, 2000).

5: System Design is defined as the understanding and interpretation of the system architecture, interfaces, modules and data in association with the system requirements. It is the process in which the application of system theory is carried out in order to proceed with the development of a certain product (Waldo, 2008). 

6: System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a framework that defined the several phases and tasks that are involved in the development of particular software or a system. SDLC is a process that described the stages such as planning, requirements analysis, designing, developing, testing & integration and deployment. There are several models that have been defined under SDLC which can be adopted for the development process such as Waterfall Model, Iterative Model, Spiral Model etc. 

7: There are primarily two approaches that can be used for the development of a system as Predictive SDLC and Adaptive SDLC.

Both of these approaches include the execution of tasks and activities to achieve an end product which is the developed system as per the requirements. There are stages that are involved in each of the two approaches with resources allocated with specific roles and responsibilities. However, both of these approaches have a lot many differences are well. The differences between predictive and adaptive SDLC are described below.

Predictive SDLC

Adaptive SDLC

Pre-defined stages such as planning, requirements analysis, designing, development, testing and deployment are used.

Development process is carried out in the series of iterations termed as sprints. Each sprint accomplishes a sub-set of the entire requirements set.

Client feedback is not included in every stage.

Close contact is maintained with the client and the feedback is incorporated in each of the sprints.

The entire project is supervised by Project Manager

SCRUM Master manages and leads the project

Has lesser scope for changes as it is less flexible. A lot of re-work is required to incorporate new requirements during the advanced stages of the project.

Very flexible and is open for changes. No or less re-work is required to incorporate the changes.

Risk identification and management is weak

Strong risk identification and management is involved

8: Spiral model is one of the adaptive SDLC models that follow the iterative approach for development. Identification is the first stage in this model which includes the gathering of the business requirements in the baseline spiral. The next stage is the design stage in which architecture, logical and physical models are created in the baseline spiral followed by the subsequent spirals. In the construction phase, Proof of Concept (POC) is created to get client feedback in the baseline spiral and the product is built in the subsequent spirals followed by risk analysis and evaluation from the customer.

9: Unified Process (UP) is defined as the use case driven and iterative approach for system development that is architecture-centric in nature. It is also referred as Unified Software Development Process that leverages Unified Modeling Language (UML) and also adheres to the system engineering meta-model. There are four phases that are associated with the development process under UP as inception, elaboration, conception and transition (Qi, 2015).

Unified Model Language (UML) is a general purpose modeling language and communication standard that is used in the field of software design and development. It comprises of notations and diagrams that are used to describe the boundary, structure and behavior of a particular system.

10 : The twelve principles as defined by Manifesto for Agile Development are as listed below:

  • Delivery of the software shall be early and as per the schedule to seek higher customer satisfaction.
  • The software shall have the ability to easily incorporate the changes without any delays.
  • Working software shall be frequently delivered to the client.
  • Business stakeholders shall be kept in close contact with the project team for better decision making.
  • There shall be enhanced team collaboration, trust and motivation within the team.
  • Face-to-face interactions shall be carried out for better communication.
  • Progress shall be measured in terms of the delivery of the working software to the client.
  • A consistent pace shall be followed in the development as well as delivery processes.
  • Agility of the system shall be enhanced with the attention to the technical requirements along with the design.
  • Simplicity shall be reflected in the project activities and end product.
  • The project team shall be self-organized to achieve project goals.
  • Feedbacks and regular reflections shall be carried out for achieving improvements (Agilemanifesto, 2017).





Methodology is defined as the set of methods and framework that is used for achieving a particular task such as adaptive or predictive methodology in SDLC.


Model is defined as the standardized format that shall be followed to achieve a particular goal. For instance, Agile model or Waterfall model that is a part of adaptive or predictive methodology.


Tools are defined as the programs, devices and instruments that are used for executing a particular activity. For example, JIRA is an agile project management tool.


Technique is defined as a practical approach and actions that are used to execute a certain task.

The difference between “Methodology” and Technique is:

Methodology is more of a theoretical concept that describes the approach that shall be followed to execute a particular task. Technique on the other hand is the practical application of the methodology for achieving the objectives.


UML Diagram


Where Used in SDLC?

Class Diagram

UML diagram that shows system classes, attributes of the classes along with the operations and relationships

These diagrams shall be used in the modeling of the object oriented systems to showcase the structure of the entire system.

Use Case Diagram

It is a UML diagram that is the graphical representation of the various systems elements and the interaction between them through actors and the actions performed by them

These diagrams shall be used to understand the behavior of the system. They help in describing the behavior of large and complex systems with much ease.

Activity Diagram

UML diagram which is used to describe the activity flow in the system in the form of a flowchart.

It shall be used to understand the dynamic aspect of the system along with its control flow.

Architectural Configuration Diagram

Architectural Configuration Diagram is a UML diagram that is used to represent the system architecture, its applications, and interfaces along with the data stores.

It is the diagram that shall be used to understand the system behavior and structure through the various internal and external elements that are involved.

Design Class Diagram

Design Class Diagram (DCD) is the UML diagram that is used to depict the software class definitions and is based on the collaboration diagrams.

These shall be used to understand the class information along with the attribute visibility associated with each class in the system.

Architectural Design Diagram

It is the design diagram that is used to graphically represent the various details and information associated with the system architecture such as principles, components and elements.

It shall be used to understand the formal behavior and description of the system architecture.

13 : Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a project tool which is used to showcase a hierarchical representation of several work packages and sub-packages that are involved in a particular system. These packages in WBS are placed in different levels to provide an understanding on the project elements, activities, scope and structure. It is a tool which assists in the determination of project schedule and budget and also allows easier project management (Rcf, 2003).

14: Use cases are extremely significant in the system design and development process as they provide a lot of information associated with the system. Interaction and behavior of each of the system users is represented by the use cases along with their role in the system. A use case comprises of the system users in the form of the actors and the actions that are performed by them. It provides the system designers and developers with the ability to understand the level of interaction that is involved. 

15 a: A “requirement is” a listing and specification that is necessary to be included in the system or product that shall be developed.

b: “Functional Requirements” are the functionalities that shall be incorporated in the system that is being developed. These are the functional specifications in the form of business rules and capabilities associated with the system. These are the requirements that are measurable in nature.

c: “Non-Functional Requirements” are the system qualities that shall be incorporated in the system that is being developed. Some of the non-functional requirements of a system may include reliability, maintainability, scalability, performance, security and availability.

16: Project Management is a methodological approach that shall be followed in order to efficiently manage all of the project activities in order to achieve the project goals and objectives. Project Management includes initiation, planning, execution, control and closure of the project as the primary management activities. Each of these activities have sub-activities that are executed to ensure that the project meets the success criteria that is defined. 

17: Project Manager is the resource that is required to manage the entire project. The primary responsibilities of a Project Manager include the following:

  • Allocation of duties and responsibilities to the project team
  • Identification and management of the project risks
  • Resolution of project disputes and conflicts through team meetings and discussions
  • Communication with the project client along with project team
  • Project planning including resource planning, schedule and budget planning
  • Ensuring that the project deliverables are provided as per the schedule
  • Motivating the project team members to achieve the project objectives and providing them with the guidelines to do so
  • Status reporting to the project client and stakeholders 

18: There are several stakeholders that are involved in the projects. Some of the primary stakeholders include:

  • Project Owner: Every project has a project client that has the highest interest in the project.
  • Customers: A project is accomplished to provide the services or system to certain end users that are the customers in the project.
  • Partners: There may be business partners that may have a direct connection with the project success or failure.
  • Project Manager: The Project Manager is the most significant resource in the project that has a high degree of contribution along with the interest in the project.
  • Project Team: Apart from the Manager, there are several resources that contribute towards the success of a project.
  • Suppliers: There are third-parties that are associated with every project and suppliers form one of the significant stakeholders in the project. 

19: PMBOK is an acronym for Project Management Body of Knowledge. It is a project management methodology that provides the Project Manager with the guidelines to successfully manage and control a particular project. There are certain stages that are defined under PMBOK as project initiation, planning, execution, control and closure. Initiation stage includes the execution of feasibility analysis and project chartering. Risk management, communication strategy, schedule & budget design and allocation of responsibilities are carried out in the planning stage. Procurement, setting up of work environment, design and development are carried out in the execution phase followed by change management, testing and integration along with reviews and performance measurement in the control phase. The last phase under PMBOK is the closure phase in which acceptance and sign offs are achieved along with the system documentation and preparation of closure report (Chaves, 2016).


Agilemanifesto. (2017). Principles behind the Agile Manifesto. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Asagba, P. (2008). A Comparative Analysis of Structured and Object-Oriented Programming Methods. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Chaves, M. (2016). A new approach to managing Lessons Learned in PMBoK process groups: the Ballistic 2.0 Model. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Larman, C. (2005). History | Object-Oriented Analysis and Design | InformIT. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Qi, X. (2015). The Software Process. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Rcf. (2003). Work Breakdown Structure. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Snyder, A. (2014). Encapsulation and Inheritance in Object-Oriented Programming Languages. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Subramanian, A. (2000). System Analysis. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Tezu. (2013). System. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

Waldo, J. (2008). On System Design. Retrieved 25 July 2017, from

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