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IND 501 Ethics and Professional Integrity in Research

Published : 29-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10


The ability to read, understand, critique, and integrate research studies and to design a study to address a gap in the research literature is a vital for a doctoral Learner. As you write your dissertation, you may be reading hundreds of studies, many of which you will evaluate as part of a coherent literature review.

Select five empirical articles from peer-reviewed journals that:

  • you consider critical to your understanding of your area of dissertation research
  • all address a particular phenomenon and attempt to contribute to theory about it

Part 1

1.Describe each study, including:
  • the research problem, questions, or hypotheses
  • the research purpose
  • type of design and elements of the design (e.g., sample, data analysis, operationalization of constructs)
  • threats to validity and if and how they were addressed
  • the findings and their implications
2.Critically evaluate each study: Does the author make a compelling case for the meaning and significance of the findings?

Part 2

Write a literature review that explains what is known and not known about the phenomenon based on a critical evaluation of the five studies.

Part 3

Develop a research question that addresses one of the unknowns you identified in Part 2 and sketch a quantitative or qualitative study that can answer the question about what is unknown and contribute to theory (in some sense of theory you discuss in Question 1).


Title: The US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Sector, Medical Appointment System, Scheduling Problems


The Department of Veteran Affairs provides the important services to the veterans of America. Including the different types of medical services, the Veterans are responsible for providing access to the national cemeteries to former military personnel and benefit programs to the needful people. The department focuses on three major divisions of the administrative departments, such as Veterans Health Administration, Veterans Benefits Administration, and National Cemetery Administration (Amara, 2013). It is noticed that these three divisions sometimes face the enumerable challenges while carrying out their specific mission. They often face controversies that involve the longstanding delays in providing the proper services to the VA and hospitals. Apart from these troubles, the department even faces several other issues as well.

The research paper will signify those associated issues that the veterans usually face in order to provide the quality services. The thesis statement of this research is based on the identification of the potential challenges faced by the Veteran Affairs Department in providing the medical services. The chapter will shed light on the proper research aim, objectives, questions, and hypothesis followed by a justified rationale of the study.  Depending on the information derived from this chapter, the literature-based study will be incorporated in the further chapter.

Part 1:

Article 1: “Access to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health system: self-reported barriers to care among returnees of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom”:

Research Problem

In the study titled “Access to the US department of Veterans Affairs health system: self-reported barriers to care among returnees of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom”, Elnitsky et al. (2013), discussed the potential barriers. These barriers were impeding the service quality in implementing the Poly-trauma System of Care for the veterans with multiple injuries returning for the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. With the objective of identifying the negatively influential variables and providing knowledge for better implementation of the program, the researchers conducted a qualitative research on the relevant respondents.

Research Hypothesis

H0: The identified medical barriers are affecting the quality of the Poly-Trauma System of Care for the Veterans

H1: The identified medical barriers are not affecting the quality of the Poly-Trauma System of Care for the Veterans

Research Purpose

For the successful exploration of the research problem and to fulfil the objective of the study, the research organizers followed the strategy of clinical interview with veterans from two different poly-trauma rehabilitation centres.

Research Design

The qualitative research process is used for deriving information about the subject matter. The research was conducted among 359 respondents with open-ended questions. Moreover, the researchers have also collected data from the electronic health records.

Findings and Threats of Validity

The journal identifies the potential barriers faced by the veterans in accessing to the proper medical treatment. These barriers are degrading the quality of the medical services at the health care centers. The journal was published in 2013, which is quite updated. However, the scenario in the health care centers is frequently changing. Hence, the validation of the journal is somewhat questioned.

Article 2: “Open Access in the Patient-Centered Medical Home: Lessons from the Veterans Health Administration”

Research Problem

The article has identified a discussion on the impact of readiness for implementation on efforts of pilot teams of “patient-centered medical home model” as their objectives. Moreover, they have also set a goal of identification of the most suitable strategies to improve the access of Patient-centered Medical Home service of the US department of Veterans Affairs.

Research Hypothesis

H0: The effective strategies can improve the access to patient-centered medical home services.

H1: The effective strategies cannot improve the access to patient-centered medical home services

Research Purpose

The research has found three major areas those have influenced with the approach of “readiness for implementation” were “leadership engagement, staffing resources, and access to information and knowledge” (True at al., 2013). This research has discovered that the factors influential in the better intervention of the pilot team have their effect on the sustainability of the access gain.

Research Design

. For successful collection of relevant data, a qualitative and formative evaluation has been done with the approaches like observation, semi-structured interviews and the review of internal organizational documents. True at al. (2013), involved the respondents from the members of implementation teams from 10 medical centres and 45 outpatient clinics.

Findings and Threats of Validity

However, in meeting the objectives of the research, this study has identified that the US department of Veterans Affairs needs to focus on the staffing requirements, training of them for disseminating better knowledge and promoting an effective leadership for providing desired level of services to the beneficiaries (True at al., 2013). Though, the article was not intended to explore the strategic issues faced by US department of Veterans Affairs and the ways to eliminate those, the result of the study has explored the factors those are negatively influencing the service pattern of the department.

Article 3: “Health Care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs: Critical Issues and Strategic Progress”  

Research Problem

The article has discussed the strategic approach or the policies of US Department of Veterans Affairs as some influential factor in understanding the recent issues faced by the department (like wait times, backlogs for service, inefficient service to the growing number of patients and many others).

Research Hypothesis

H0: The policies imposed on U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs are decreasing the emerging threats

H1: The policies imposed on U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs are not decreasing the emerging threats

Research Purpose

This research work has identified that the US Department of Veterans Affairs is facing the service related issues as some of the policies of the organization are hindering VA’s ability to serve the increasing number of patients and handle the increased cost of health care.

Research Design

For identifying the causes which are being responsible in efficient service dissemination of the department, the author has used a secondary data collection procedure. For obtaining authentic data, the author has utilized an approach of literature review.

Findings and Threats of Validity

The author has identified this strategic or policy related failure of the organization as the major cause of increased wait time and back logs (Sandoval, 2015). Moreover, the author has also identified the lack of integrity, staffing shortage, outdated technologies and inefficient expenditure as some important reasons for VA’s failure in efficient service delivery (Sandoval, 2015). However, the secondary data collection procedure, has limited the implication level of the study, as the data were unable to reflect the practical scenario by involving no participants from the host or the beneficiaries.

Article 4: “Surveyed Enrolees in Veterans Affairs Health Care: How They Differ from Eligible Veterans Surveyed by BRFSS”

Research Problem

The article has discussed the difference in the demographic and pattern between “Veterans enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and Veterans eligible to enrol for Veterans Affairs health care.” The identified diverse nature and patterns are sometimes creating the threats to the medical treatments provided to the veterans. The study sheds light on such problems to derive the knowledge for eliminating such issue.

Research Hypothesis

H0: The diverse pattern of the health care service creates trouble for the veterans

H1: The diverse pattern of the health care service does not create trouble for the veterans

Research Purpose

The purpose of the study is to provide the different patterns of medical care services that can influence the treatment methods for the veterans.  This article will influence the dissertation to find the most effective solutions for the service related issues faced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

Research Design

In this study, the data is collected from organizational records and the result from the Veterans Health Administration. Moreover, to identify the eligible veterans, individual data has been collected with Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (Phillips, Shahoumian & Backus, 2015).

Findings and Threats of Validity

The result of this research has discovered that the aged population represent a large portion of the enrolled veterans. However, they are less likely to depict their health status as good to excellent. The result has identified that VHA is providing a safety net to the large population of US regarding age, disease and income issues. This conclusion of this study identifies that the aged population represents large portion of the beneficiaries US Department of Veterans Affairs, hence, it is needed for the department to plan its strategies those will serve this population with best efficiency (Phillips, Shahoumian & Backus, 2015).

Article 5: “Non-VA Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives on Co-management for Rural Veterans”

Research Problem

The article has identified that there are limited VA care co-ordination resources for the non-VA primary care providers, whereas many veterans use the care services within and outside of the “Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)”. Hence, it is important for the VA create aligned care teams for coordinating the health care system for the veterans. Gaglioti et al. (2014), has set the objective of identifying the perspective of primary care providers on caring for the veterans.

Research Hypothesis

H0: The team alignment and coordination is required for the health care system of veterans

H1: The team alignment and coordination is not required for the health care system of veterans

Research Purpose

The purpose of the research is to introduce several strategic methods that can improve the health care services for the veterans. The information extracted from the article will present the insightful ideas about the process of mitigating the potential hazards. The use of the proper methodology will also be helpful for understanding the conceptual analysis present in this article.

Research Design

For relevant data collection, qualitative data has been collected from telephonic interviews, which were interpreted in the context of quantitative survey result. The respondents were the primary care providers in a practice based research network. 67 non-VA primary care providers completed surveys and a descriptive statistics were performed. 21 telephonic interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis has been conducted (Gaglioti et al., 2014).

Findings and Threats of Validity

The result of this study has identified that the communication pattern with VA is poor which is directing to poor service to the patients. The beneficiaries have been identified as the vehicle of information dissemination which can be identified as a sheer failure of the co-ordination mechanism. Thus, the research has concluded that the limitation of effective communication pattern is directing the US Department of Veterans Affairs to providing fragmented care to the beneficiaries (Gaglioti et al., 2014). This article has successfully identified the issue related to the service discrepancies of US Department of Veterans Affairs. Thus, this article is being helpful in providing an insight to the research topic of this proposal.

Part 2

Literature Review

It is noticed that the medical treatment for the veterans is degrading due to the improper scheduling of the appointment. It is necessary to observe the major reasons for the ineffective and inadequate efficiency of medical procedure. It is usually delaying the medical treatment due to which many veterans died. Considering such issues the literature review will derive knowledge about such subject matter from the updated per-reviewed journals. The summary and methodology of these articles will be discussed in this chapter. The extracted information will provide the insightful ideas about the probable solution that can minimize such health risks of the veterans in United States.

Article 1:

“Access to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health system: self-reported barriers to care among returnees of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom”:

Elnitsky et al. (2013) explained that the problems emerge while implementing the Poly-Trauma System of Care for the veterans that have been suffering from multiple injuries. The article Access to the US Department of Veterans Affairs Health System: self-reported barriers to care among returnees of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom explains these issues in a significant manner. This article has identified the barriers which are restricting the service access of the “Poly-trauma System of Care” by the “Veterans with multiple injuries returning from combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.”  The result of this article is significant for this dissertation topic “The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical sector medical appointment system scheduling problems”, as it provides an insight into the service or appointment related barriers faced by department of VA (Elnitsky et al., 2013).


This article has identified that the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs is facing issues like long wait time, distance of the VA facility centers, the beneficiaries’ doubt about the knowledge of the VA staffs, paperwork hassle, limited service hours, stigma and many others in a significant measures.  The respondents of this study has identified that they are facing long wait times, which is much lesser in private services. among all the other issues that the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs is facing (identified by this article), the long wait time and the distance of the VA care centers have been identified as the most crucial to address by the authors (Elnitsky et al., 2013).  This article has mentioned that one experience of these barriers is restricting the beneficiaries from obtaining further service.  Hence, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs needs to address these issues to provide an efficient service to the Veterans. This study has identified that the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has to go long way to provide effective service to the beneficiaries.  The data collected from this study can be used to identify the significance of the wait time issues in the service pattern of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, which is influential in determining the variables related to “medical appointment system scheduling problems” of the same.

Methodology and Findings

The qualitative research method is used for deriving the information from this article. The open-ended questions were presented in the interview session with 359 veterans. It is noted that there is the significant barriers to the access in utilizing the VA care with the primary exposure. The findings derived from the article indicate that most of the veterans reported that hy have been facing innumerable issues with the proper access to the medical care and important stigmatization. The research study is also addressing the issues with the access barriers to the exclusive medical care from the VA. Hence, the article signifies the issues in a prominent way.

Article 2:

“Open access in the patient-centered medical home: lessons from the Veterans Health Administration”.

This research paper has described the influence of inclination for implementation on efforts of pilot teams for improving the access quality of the patient-centered medical home model (True et al., 2013).


The key participants of the policy making team of VA have developed initiatives for improving the service of a patient-centered medical home model.  This article has identified that these initiatives have influence over the areas like leadership engagement, recruitment resources, and access of information.  Moreover, the article has concluded that with trained and well equipped staffs and a positive work motivation is influential in creating positive job results in the workplace (True et al., 2013).  Thus, the result of this report provides a hint for solving the issues that the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs is facing.  The research conclusions will be helpful in identifying the possible organizational strategies for solving the problems identified in the dissertation.

Methodology and Findings

The article is presenting the qualitative and formative evaluation. It indicates the implementation of the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) in six states. The semi-structured interviews are conducted in this study. The findings from the associated information indicate that the early adopters have been implementing some of the fruitful strategies to enhance access to the medical care. It reduces the risks due to the inadequate access faced by the veterans while availing the proper medical care. The strategies are manly focusing on demand for face-to-face care. It generally increases the supply of diverse primary care. Moreover, it also improves the clinic efficiencies. Implementation of such strategies would be useful for mitigating the risks emerged due to the lack of access to the necessary medical treatment.

Article 3:

“Health Care in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: Critical Issues and Strategic Progress”.

This article has identified that in recent times, United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is failing to provide essential services to the increased number of disabled veterans from the global war on terrorism (GWOT) (Sandoval, 2015).


As per this article, the issues like longer wait time and backlog of services are the result of faulty strategic decisions or inefficient policies, lack of integration in the organizational culture, failed leadership and efficient logistic management.  For the issues like longer wait time, the author has identified the significant failure in staffing, salary discrepancies (which is making VA positions less competitive for the eligible candidates) and outdated electronic scheduling system (which is hindering the ability of the employees in patient tracking and appointment scheduling) as the some of the major reasons (Sandoval, 2015).  In the broader range, the faulty policy of privatization has increased the cases of fraudulent activities, which is directing to backlogs.  Moreover, the lack of effective leadership has also directed the organization to face strategic failures.  Thus, this article is being helpful in identifying the potential reasons, which are directly or indirectly influential in impairing the appointment system scheduling process

Methodology and Findings

The article has used the descriptive research design to provide the insightful knowledge regarding the inadequate medical facilities for the veterans in United States. The secondary research process is utilized for gathering the relevant dat. The findings from the article describes that the faulty strategic decisions as well as the inefficient policies are responsible for failed leadership. The outdated electronic scheduling, salary discrepancy and improper staffing are the recognizable issues for the mismanagement of the medical facilities in U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs. The issues are directly linked with the issues mentioned in this research subject. The falsified data, improper scheduling process, and discrepancy in providing proper wages to the staffs are deteriorating the medical services for the veterans.

Article 4:

“Surveyed Enrollees in Veterans Affairs Health Care: How They Differ From Eligible Veterans Surveyed by BRFSS”.

This article has described the difference in socio-demographic pattern among the enrollees and the Veterans who are eligible to be enrolled (Phillips et al., 2015).


The majority of the enrolled beneficiaries of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs are the aged veterans.  The enrollees are more likely to come from below a $16,000 household income.  Hence, it is significantly important to render the services efficiently, as it is highly influential in maintaining a healthy living situation for those served the country (Phillips et al., 2015). The findings from this article have the clear insight to the significance of the VA services in US Health Care System. As the majority of the enrollees are the aged population, it is highly important to provide them the most efficient and nimble service.  Thus, this article will influence the dissertation to find the most effective solutions for the service related issues faced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

Methodology and Findings

The article is presenting the characteristics of eligible and enrollees’ veterans in the year of 2012. The data is collected from the administrative records. The quantitative research method is utilized for conducting survey process among the veteran enrollees. The behavioral risk factors are analyzed through the surveillance system. The findings specify that elderly individuals are mainly represented as the eligible veterans. The household income of these veterans is below $16,000 per year. In linking the current research study with the findings, it can be interpreted that the VHA maintains consistency as a safety net provider with respect to age, income, and disease burden.

Article 5:

“Non-VA Primary Care Providers’ Perspectives on Co-management for Rural Veterans.”

This article has identified a lack of communication among the health care service providers.  This failure of communication and co-ordination has been detected as the reason of fragmented and inefficient service pattern (Gaglioti et al., 2014).  


This particular article has identified that in various contexts, the U.S. Veterans use the health care services within and outside of the Department of Veteran Affairs.  However, there is a notable failure in the co-ordination system among the VA and non-VA primary care providers (Gaglioti et al., 2014).  It is interrupting the efficient care giving procedure of the U.S. health care system.  The lack of integrated communication is negatively impacting the service pattern of U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs.  It is leading to fragmented services, lack of motivation among the PCPs and inefficient care giving.  Hence, the authors have suggested establishing effective communication and co-ordination strategies for rendering the most efficient service.  

Hence, from these above-discussed articles it can be detected that the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs is facing some serious issues related to its service delivery.  The lack of pragmatic and efficient policy or strategy, inefficient staffing and training, ineffective inter-department and intra-department communication, failure in introducing updated technologies and inefficient leadership can be identified as some of the reasons of this service related issues (Chokshi, 2014).  These articles have provided a broad idea about the potential causes of the research problem identified in this dissertation topic.  However, they have not mentioned any specific recommendations for improving the medical appointment system scheduling service, which is the focal point of this dissertation.

Methodology and Findings

The information presented in this article is analyzed through the application of Qualitative data collection process. The semi-structured telephone interviews were interpreted for deriving the relevant result similar to the context of this study. The participants were associated with a practice-based research network in the year of 2011. The descriptive statistics were and 21 semi-structured telephone interviews were utilized for presenting a thematic analysis (Cleary, Horsfall and Hayter, 2014). The result exclaimed that the current communication system of VA was viewed as ineffective. Similarly, the outcome is also predicted to be inefficient. The veterans were considered as the major vehicle for transferring information between the providers. Hence, it can inferred that the establishment of the proper communication channel is necessary for the veterans in order to implement the quality medical services.

Part 3 

Research Questions and Design

Purpose of the Study

From the above discussion of the relevant articles, it can be identified that a number of reasons are being responsible in deteriorating the service pattern of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.  Various internal issues are hindering the process of effective service delivery of VA (Shiner et al., 2012).  However, identifying the causes are not enough for addressing any organizational issue.  It is needed to be addressed with pragmatic solutions.  Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the causes those are impending the medical appointment system scheduling service and disrupting the whole service delivery system of the department. Moreover, the dissertation will also thrive to explore possible solutions for addressing the appointment related problems of VA.  The dissertation will seek to suggest technological solution to solve the service rendering problems.

Research Questions for Qualitative Process

Q.1) What are the processes used by the U.S. Veterans for characterizing their experiences while accessing the medical services from U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs?

Q.2) What is meant by an ideal experience that the U.S. Veterans would like to encounter during the use of medical appointment system of U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs?

Q.3) What are the methods used by the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs to resolve the medical scheduling problems? 

Research Design

The research study is analyzed through using the qualitative research approach. The use of the descriptive research design is effective enough in exploring the contextualized ideas regarding the subject matter. As mentioned by Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015), the qualitative research method will provide an in-depth and detailed knowledge about the research topic.

For the successful completion of this dissertation, the author will opt for the qualitative approach over the quantitative one.  As mentioned by Silverman (2016), the qualitative research provides a better subjective approach and the unstructured or semi-structured response option provides the respondents the freedom of giving an insight into the problem area, which is typically absent in the restricted data collection approach of the quantitative research methodology.  

This study will involve respondents from both the enrolled veterans and the service providing services.  By collection data from the staffs, the research will be able to identify the organizational issues those are needed to be addressed for improving the appointment scheduling system. On the other hand, the veterans will be able to provide data for identifying the consumer-oriented issues those are needed to be solved to provide best possible service to the beneficiaries.  Here, to obtain the most authentic result and keep the database within the control of the author, 100 respondents will be interviewed. 50 of them will be the current employees of the appointment system scheduling procedure of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.  The remaining will be the enrolled Veterans of the department.  For the employees a telephonic interview will be conducted, whereas the Veterans will be contacted for face-to-face interviews.

Now, for analyzing the data collected from the respondents will be analyzed with the content analysis procedure (O’Brien et al., 2014).  As mentioned by Vaismoradi, Turunen and Bondas (2013), content analysis can be identified as a procedure for categorizing the verbal or the behavioral data with the aim of classification, summarization and tabulation.  As mentioned by Gottschalk (2014), the tabulated data can be represented through graphical charts and diagrams.  It will provide a better understanding of the research result.  Here, for analyzing the data (tabulation and graphical representation), MS excel will be used as a data analyzing tool.  

For ensuring the quality of the findings, the criteria of reliability and validity will be maintained (Maesani, Iacca & Floreano, 2016).  As mentioned by Krippendorff (2012), reliability is the consistency of the research result to be obtained when the experiment will be repeated. For maintaining reliability, the researcher will opt for engaging a great range of respondents to obtain reliable results.

On the other hand, as mentioned by Holloway and Wheeler (2013), validity can be identified “the range to which the data supports that the analysis is correct and the methods in which the analysis used are proper”.  In other words the validity of the findings is its faculty of being truthful and believable (Torre & Picho, 2016).  As mentioned by Vaismoradi, Turunen and Bondas, (2013), while opting for a qualitative research the data are more likely to be subjective.  Hence, there is a huge potentiality of the data to be biased.  It can be identified as a threat to validity (Torre & Picho, 2016).  Hence, the research conductor will use an ethical approach while collecting the data.  As mentioned by Kono (2012), while collecting the data the authors need to take prior consent of the respondents and they must be ensured that their name will not be revealed.  It helps in eradicating the fear of personal damage for divulging sensitive information and the study becomes able to use authentic data for research (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2013).

Moreover, as per the Data Protection Directive, the principles of notice, purpose, consent, security, disclosure access and accountability will be maintained (Convery and Cox 2012).  Thus, the author will opt to collect valid data for the dissertation. Moreover, the researcher can also be the threat to validity and reliability.  To eradicate this issue, comparing the results with other evidences and showing the result to another outside researcher will be opted.  As mentioned by Heale and Forbes (2013), for eliminating the threats to internal validity, triangulation method will be typically helpful.  The use of two or more data sources and methods, investigators to analyze the study eliminates the personal bias of the investigator (Rooney et al., 2016).  It also helps in overcoming the deficiencies of a single-theory or a single-investigator study.  Thus, it increases the validity of the findings (Kirkwood & Price, 2014).

Moreover, with the help of the grounded theory, the dissertation will conduct its qualitative research.  As mentioned by Gentles et al. (2014), in the grounded theory, the researcher develops a new theory or set of knowledge depending on the collected qualitative data. The grounded approach talks about an inductive process of research.  With a qualitative approach, the researcher collects data and categorizes them.  Now, depending on the inclination or indication of the data, a new set of knowledge develops.  Here, the research conductor will opt for the same strategy.  According to Cho and Lee (2014), the grounded theory provides a great level of validity of the result, as it is highly context-specific, detailed and tightly connected to the data.

In addition, the author can use the social theory of social exclusion and inclusion in discussing the topic of this dissertation.  As mentioned by Scharf and Keating (2012), social exclusion can be identified as a process in which individuals or a cluster of the society is systematically blocked or denied various rights, opportunities and resources they are entitled to and those are available to other members of the society.  As discussed by Kouchaki and Wareham (2015), such alienation can occur due to the discriminatory approach of the society or government to the people for their race, color, living standards, age, disabilities and many more. As described by Lamichhane (2015), the failure in the service delivery is paving the way towards social exclusion of the U.S. Veterans by the government itself.  As discussed by Kouchaki and Wareham (2015), the outcome of social exclusion is the decreased standard of living, societal discrimination and reduced health status of the society.  This process of social exclusion of the U.S. Veterans will also lead to the same scenario, if not addressed immediately.

Hence, it is important to the national authority to opt for the theory of social inclusion.  As mentioned by Maxwell et al. (2013), social inclusion is affirmative action those are intended to improve the ability, prospect and dignity of people deprived based on their identity, for taking part in the society.  However, this theory has led to the introduction of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs with the aim of including the disabled or aged Veterans of U.S. into the societal fabric by providing health care and financial services.  Thus, the theory has led to the practical use of the knowledge (Lamichhane, 2015).  However, the theory has failed to offer solutions in the issues occurred with the practical utilization of knowledge.  Here, the theory is expecting to be expanded with the help of empirical knowledge.   

Thus, the aim of the investigator to explore the issues related to the appointment system scheduling problems faced by The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and identifying the best possible solutions for eradicate the issue, will be successfully achieved with a well-structured qualitative research.


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