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HISTORY 23 American History I

Published : 29-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10

Questions:

It is essential, for you to provide citations for their work. Please be sure to directly quote the text as well as cite paraphrasing of specific information. Citations must adhere to the Chicago Style format but perfection is not expected.

1.Choose one of the following philosophes and explain how his ideas influenced the revolutionaries in France in the late 1700s:

Francois-Marie Arouet (aka Voltaire)

2.What were the social and cultural impacts of the Industrial Revolution on Europe?
 
3.Napoleon Bonaparte served as a model for leadership throughout the nineteenth century. Choose ONE of the following nineteenth century leaders and compare and contrast his career with that of Napoleon.

Otto von Bismarck

4.Compare and contrast the First and Second World Wars in terms of military strategy, technological development, and economic impact on the nations involved.

Answers:

1.The impact of Voltaire in pre-revolution France is unfathomable. Francois-Marie Arouet was a French historian, philosopher and most importantly an enlightenment writer. He was one of the greatest and powerful writers whose writing effected the psychology of the common people around the world and they became aware about their situation in contrast to the elites.

Thesis statement: Voltaire was a pioneer who first advocated for freedom in all aspects by separating the power of Church and state.

Voltaire was the most reasonable writer of his time who influenced the ideology of the philosophers and introduced the enlightenment through liberal and natural views. Voltaire published ‘Treatise on Tolerance’ where he outlined his specific form of deism (Madigan 2017). It was a natural religion that most of the philosophes adopted and shaped for fitting their own ideas. Voltaire believed that the religion is the reason behind most inhuman crimes.

Voltaire was a huge supporter of the empiricism.  Unlike the English philosophers, he began to be critical.  He tried for developing a French philosophy influenced by empiricism.  Voltaire wanted the humanity to be led by experience (Dominiczak 2015).  Voltaire wanted his nation to be changed and liberal like England.  Most of his Letters proposed to acknowledge the views of John Locke and Newton. 

Candide, by Voltaire was a satire in which he has stepped outside the stage of the Enlightenment as well as made fun of many of the crucial elements among which was that man can improve himself along with his environment.  Voltaire used to question his own beliefs and shifted from the optimistic view to a pessimistic view which created path for revolution in 1789.

The views of Voltaire largely manipulated the views of the French people in 1700. He was the first philosopher in France who attempted to define a natural religion. He was critical of the fanaticism and dogma associated with contemporary religious heads. His literatures had a significant effect on the changes that led to French Revolution.

2.The industrialization of Europe took place in 1750 that chiefly occurred in Britain. This revolution was marked be three segments each of which was associated with different region as well as technology. The structure of the economy changed along with technological innovations. New types of investments shifted the focus to the manufacturing in the newly built large scale factories.

Thesis statement: The basic concept associated with the industrial revolution was to shift the economy from the agrarian sector to industrial and commercial sectors.

Industrial revolution has a deep rooted impact on the society and culture of the European nations and all of these countries utilized the new sources for revolutionising production. There were three levels in which, Britain pioneered the initial phase. It was then followed by France and Germany while the third phase industrialized Italy, Austria, Russia, Spain and Sweden.

The revolution had a far reaching social impacts, varied across region as well as class. New class and family structure emerged for adjusting with new wage commercialization and production that shifted from the house to large industries (Fernihough and Kevin 2014). Capitalism originated from industrialization that greatly impacted on social structure. Industrial revolution caused mass migration to the urban and semi urban areas from rural places for employment.

The culture of Europe also influenced by the industrial revolution where the class discrimination became prominent. Before the revolution the society was divided into two classes elites and poor but a new class was introduced which was consisted of entrepreneurs, lawyers, teachers, physicians and shopkeepers. They were the middle class or bourgeoisie (De Pleijt, Alexandra and Jan 2016).

Due to the Industrial revolution, the economy began to focus on the industrial productions rather than agriculture. The lazy rural life was transformed into busy, disciplined life. The position of the women changed greatly as they also started to earn like men.

3.Napoleon Bonaparte and Otto von Bismarck not only affected the outlook of their own nations, but the outlook of Europe as a whole. These two people were uniquely responsible for prominence of their respective countries during their rule. However, they differ each other by governing ideologies, military expansion and religion. The greatest successes of the two had is associated with their military.

Thesis statement: Both Napoleon and Bismarck were so much popular and powerful that they seemingly ruled their countries. 

Bismarck and Napoleon can be compared through military successes, supremacy in Europe, and brutality that amplified their popularity (Senne, Linda, and Simon 2015). The reason why both these leaders chose military actions was particularly unifying their nations. Bismarck wanted to bring the German states and Prussia together under his rule. On the overhand Napoleon wanted to incorporate Russia, Prussia, Spain and Austria under French rule.

Napoleon was said to the child of French revolution and he was one of the greatest military commanders in history of Europe. Under his rule France had become one of the most dominating nation in the continent. Bismarck on the other hand has never been a military commander but achieved many military successes. Both of these rulers are said to be very ruthless in their actions.

The basic deference of the Napoleonic rule of rule of Bismarck was their strategies. Napoleon’s ambition to bring Europe under French rule surpassed his capacities. On the other hand, Bismarck’s capacity exceeded the abilities of his contemporary society to absorb them. However, after these leaders their achievements and capacities remained unfollowed because the countries lacked great leaders who could carry their legacy.

Both Napoleon and Bismarck followed strategies to achieve their ambitions to rule Europe (Dawson et al. 2016). According to the critics these two leaders preached their people the true meaning of nationalism.

4.The First World War was fought between 1914 and 1918 and the Second World War was fought between1939 and 1945. These were the prime military conflicts in the history of human being. Both of these wars involved military alliances among different groups of nations.

Thesis statement: The First and Second World wars involved half of the globe and demonstrated the conflict of supremacy.

The World Wars not only judged the supremacy of the quarrelling nations in terms of military and technological advances but also the economic impact that had a deeper effect on world economy. First World War was marked by various technological inventions which were basically focused on developing the military strategies (Kesternich et al. 2014). Tanks, flamethrowers, poison gas, tracer bullets, aircraft carriers, pilotless drones and air traffic control were the contribution of the first great war to humanity.

The second World War offered the nations with the biological and chemical weapons and most importantly the nuclear weapon. The researchers have stated that most of the technological advancements took place between the World Wars. Numerous ships, vehicles, aircrafts, artilleries and automatic aircraft complemented by devices used for communication, navigation and remote sensing were invented in the interwar period.

According to the researchers, the wars never have a beneficial effect on the economy of the countries indulge in war. In this case half of the world was involved in rivalry therefore, most of the nations had been financially affected directly or indirectly (Doepke et al. 2015). The nations suffered war debts due to the wars, it covered economic mobilization of the national resources and labours. The power supremacy needed demonstration of wealth spent on military advancements.

Both the global wars involved many large nations which indirectly affected the economy of the small nations. Technology at that time only focused on progressing military strategies of multiple countries that ultimately divided the globe into two conflicting poles.

References:

Dawson, Heather, Alexander Novotny, Karen Becker, Daniel Reim, Rupert Langer, Irene Gullo, Magali Svrcek et al. "Macroscopy predicts tumor progression in gastric cancer: A retrospective patho-historical analysis based on Napoleon Bonaparte's autopsy report." Digestive and liver disease 48, no. 11 (2016): 1378-1385.

De Pleijt, Alexandra M., and Jan Luiten Van Zanden. "Accounting for the “Little Divergence”: What drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300–1800?." European Review of Economic History 20, no. 4 (2016): 387-409.

Doepke, Matthias, Moshe Hazan, and Yishay D. Maoz. "The baby boom and World War II: A macroeconomic analysis." The Review of Economic Studies 82, no. 3 (2015): 1031-1073.

Dominiczak, Marek H. "Rationalism, Science, and Freedom of Speech: Voltaire." Clinical chemistry 62, no. 5 (2016): 789-790.

Fernihough, Alan, and Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke. Coal and the European industrial revolution. No. w19802. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014.

Kesternich, Iris, Bettina Siflinger, James P. Smith, and Joachim K. Winter. "The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe." Review of Economics and Statistics 96, no. 1 (2014): 103-118.

Madigan, Patrick. "Calvin Meets Voltaire: the Clergy of Geneva in the Age of Enlightenment, 1685?1798. By Jennifer Powell McNutt. Pp. xiv, 358, Farnham/Burlington, Ashgate, 2013,£ 70.00." The Heythrop Journal 58, no. 3 (2017): 552-553.

Senne, Linda, and Simon Moore. "Bismarck, propaganda and public relations." Public Relations Review 41, no. 3 (2015): 326-334.

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