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HISTORY 21 World History

Published : 29-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10

Questions:

Many have argued that it was the way World War 1 ended which made World War 2 inevitable. Read the document and answer the following questions:

1.According to the authors of Germany's complaint, how will various provisions of the treaty hurt Germany's economy?
 
2.In Germany's view, how would the country have been treated differently if the principles they attribute to President Wilson had been applied?
 
3.To what higher "fundamental laws" does the document appeal to in order to strengthen German assertions?
 
4.Do you agree with the authors of the document that Germany was being poorly treated? What response to their complaints might defenders of the treaty have made?
 

Answers:

1.The background of the question is based on the aftermath effect of the World War I. The Paris Peace Conference comprised of certain provisions that deteriorate the economic condition of Germany as Germany lost the war (Hankey, 2014). Germany had to accept the total responsibility regarding the damages and as per the conditions of the treaty, many Germanise had to leave their homeland. German had to bear the indemnity of the war losses and it has been decided that the German river should be undertaken and that should be controlled by certain international bodies. Germany was forced to pay $5 billion and it was decided that the economy of Germany would be regulated by the Poland. In the year 1923, the French region declared to collect the coal for the transportation from the territory of Germany. According to the pact, many German homestead lands were became a part to the Czechoslovakian states. Due to the pact, the position of Germany was utterly destroyed and the economic condition of the country had to face hurdle (Unowsky, 2014).

2.Wilson was the American President who had adopted certain notions at the post war period. He was of the view that any particular state is not responsible for the war. Therefore, it is not required to punish Germany for the war (Williams, 2014). In the year 1918, he had delivered his fourteen points policies and included certain principles on open diplomacy, free trade, readjustment of colonial claims and self-determination of Europe. Apart from the policies, he was opted for the establishment of a new organisation who will be responsible for secure peace and integrity. He had not taken any policy to deprive Germany or punish the state for the betterment of the world diplomacy as a whole.

However, it has been observed that the other leaders such as the British Prime Minister David Lloyed and the French President Georges Clemenceau were supported to punish Germany and held the state liable for the war. As a necessary consequence of the same, the harsh principles of the Treaty of Versailles were imposed on Germany in the year 1919. It has been observed that the policies of the treaty have weaken the German framework and the economy of the state was affected for the harsh pacts and the reason behind such deterioration was the mentality of the state leaders regarding Germany. Therefore, it can be stated that if the model of Wilson could be followed, the condition of Germany will be different (Marks, 2013).   

3.In the first paragraph of the treaty, it was written that the treaty will try to maintain fundamental rights among all and fundamental law should be enacted for the betterment of the society. It was also stated that doctrine of equality should be maintained and self-determination will be regarded as the best right secured for the equality and integrity of the universe (Sharp, 2015). Therefore, it was the right of the citizen of Germany to reveal their opinion regarding the acceptance of blame or taking the responsibility of the war. However, the ultimate situation was different and it has been observed that millions of Germanise had to leave their place and bear the indemnity of war. Thus, imposition of these duties to the citizens was bad in law and opposed the principle of peace.

4.After perusing the terms of the treaty and the agreement, it can be observed that the Germanise are ill-treated and they had to bear all the liabilities of the war alone. It has been clear from the given facts that all the participants of the war were suffered badly and Germany was not the exception. The effect of the war becomes detrimental to the country. However, USA president Wilson was an exception. He was the sole person who opted for peace but the other countries of the European Union disarm Germany brutally (Phelps, 2013).

Countries like France demanding money and other resources from the territory of Germany and military base camp was organised in the border of the country. Everyone presumed that Germany was the real predator and pass over the liabilities of the European countries on the shoulders of Germany. The burden that was imposed on Germany was havoc and the European countries were made the excuse by stating that Germany had the resources and if the weapons, resources and money could snatched from them, they could not use it in another war.

References:

Hankey, D. (2014). The Supreme Control at the Paris Peace Conference 1919 (Routledge Revivals): A Commentary. Routledge.

Marks, S. (2013). Mistakes and Myths: The Allies, Germany, and the versailles treaty, 1918–1921. The Journal of Modern History, 85(3), 632-659.

Phelps, N. M. (2013). US-Habsburg Relations from 1815 to the Paris Peace Conference: Sovereignty Transformed. Cambridge University Press.

Sharp, A. (2015). The Consequences of the Peace: The Versailles Settlement: Aftermath and Legacy 1919-2015. Haus Publishing.

Unowsky, D. (2014). Nicole M. Phelps. US-Habsburg Relations from 1815 to the Paris Peace Conference: Sovereignty Transformed.

Williams, A. J. (2014). The Allies During the First World War and Paris Peace Conference. In France, Britain and the United States in the Twentieth Century 1900–1940 (pp. 56-93). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

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