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HCS 483 Health Care Information Systems

Published : 16-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10


This report took into account the improvement of the healthcare industry in the country that has led to the increase of the average health status and reduction of health inequalities.

United States spend significant amount of money on health care than any other industrialized nations. The country is rich is resources and spending a huge amount on the different communities that can help the children of Texas, suffering from The report discusses about the help of the information systems in the healthcare system with respect to the toddlers and infants in Texas.

Different sort of learning disabilities have been discussed in this paper that have been affecting the toddlers and infants. The research designs methods and the sort of data to be sued by the researcher ahs also been mentioned in this paper.



The healthcare system of US has gained popularity and attention from all over the world because of its improvement in the service and usage of advanced tools. There has been a drastic growth in the cost as well as the size of the US healthcare industry in last few decades. The healthcare system has been a product of growth and maturation that lead to various problems initially. The governments and the private sector companies of the country have made short-term corrections.  The short-term thinking and some unintended consequences of the legislative policies that have made the healthcare system of US very complicated. As per the statistics of US Disability Statistics of School Age Children, out of the 53.9 million school-age children in US, about 2.8 million were reported to be having learning disabilities (Disabled World, 2017). It has been stated that are around 2, 00,000 toddlers and infants who have been affected with this learning disability disorder and have been receiving special education under Individuals with Diabilities Education Act (IDEA). The healthcare companies abide the rules that govern the transactions in the healthcare industry in the country.  


Instinct as well as research says that people having learning disabilities, whether it is severe and complex, always aspire to get the same things that others aspire in their lives, whether it is an adult or any toddler and infants. This can be friendship, social relationships, good health, and recognized position in a community and meaningful occupations. The history of psychology states that intelligence as well as normality is very simple thinks as everyone thinks. The concept of learning disability of the toddlers and the infants are very popular matter of discussion for a long time and different communities have made various guidelines long back to protect the children suffering from learning disabilities. The different organizations of Texas have set various guidelines to help the children and their parents in coping with these issues.  Texas has become the primary state that is looking to improve the disability learning disorder of toddlers and infants in every possible way through setting up of committees and councils.

Problem Statement

A problem refers to the difference between the actual and the desired result (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). There is a gap between the information systems that need to be developed for curing the toddlers and the infants and what is actually prevailing in Texas. Many of the hospitals and the schools are not able to treat the children properly and not abiding by the guidelines in Texas. It is important to bridge this gap and narrow it down as much as possible so that every toddler and every infant could lead a normal life and crave a way of success for themselves and the nation in future.

Aim of the research

The main goal of the research is to critically analyze how the information systems can help the infants and the toddlers of Texas to overcome learning difficulties. Another objective is to find out whether the various information systems are able to help the children in getting rid of the learning disabilities.   

Research Questions

The questions of the study are as follows:

  • What are the key reasons for the difficulties in learning of the toddlers and the infants of Texas?
  • What are the different information systems that will help the children suffering from learning disabilities?
  • What are the possible recommendations or ideas to improve the well-being of these toddlers and infants in Texas through further monitoring the information system?

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework deals with the various theories related to the topic and how the variables interact with each other.  Learning disability is considered as a generic classification that helps to represent a heterogeneous group of disorders. The Neuropsychological Theory of Learning Disability has identified this trend that has already been incorporated in an attempt to define the phenomenon where the emphasis is placed on the suspected or known neurological aspects (Shute & Hogan, 2017). The empirical and conceptual neuropsychological basis of learning disabilities helps in the facilitation of productive contemporary thought about the group of disorders.

The evolution of the psychological theories of intelligence and learning has immense impacts on the conceptions of development delay.  The specific and general learning disabilities have paralleled the biases as well as the assumptions of the psychological theories. The problem for assessment is the dependability across the time of measures of the basic efficiency of the memory. There is a question about the potentiality of transfer of the training memory components with respect to significant improvement in the performances in the schools. As per the theory, it is possible for the identification of the specific components that a child is having difficulties in mastering. Thus the metaphor changes from the memory of the child to a domain specific task component that demands extra attention and care. Another significant change in the metaphor is from the diagnosis that is implicitly regarded as the static and permanent in comparison to the dynamic and transient. The transient gives rise to a point where the child is having problems with the understanding the place value notation in arithmetic. These changes define different approaches for the diagnosis and instructions of learning disabilities.


H1: The information systems help to cure the infants and the toddlers having learning disabilities.

H0: The information systems are not able to cure the infants and the toddlers having learning disabilities.

Significance of the study

The research study has a great significance in getting to know about how the toddlers and the infants of Texas having learning disabilities are being treated. The data and the suggestions of the respondents would help to find ways to treat the children having disabilities, properly and help them in getting cured. It will also help in knowing whether the different guidelines regarding helping the children with learning disabilities, are being followed properly in Texas. This research would enable the reader in understanding the issues on the topic and what the state of Texas has been doing to overcome the issue related to toddlers and infants with learning disability.

Accessibility issues

The researcher has the possibilities of facing challenges while conducting the research. This challenge can be regarding the collection of data in relation with the topic. It is very hard to make the respondents convince to give their views and opinions related to the topic. Another challenge is the authenticity of the data to be collected as the respondents are not always correct.

Ethical considerations

The research takes into account some ethical considerations before it is conducted by the researcher. The researcher needs to maintain the ethical issues throughout the research process. It is the onus of the researcher to maintain a privacy of all the data that will be collected for the research and must not publish them in the public. He is always under an obligation of not leaking the personal details of the respondents. The researcher should not force the respondents in giving their opinions about the topic. The failure of the researcher in maintaining the privacy of the respondents may lead to the researcher being help held for the breach of ethical issues.   


The delimitation will take into consideration the demographic boundaries in conducting the research (Cristina-Elena, 2017). The research will be conducted in Texas only as per the research topic. Other states of US will not be considered and here lies the delimitation of the research.


The limitations of the research study takes into consideration the time, financial and other constraints regarding the research. The researcher may not have enough time to conduct the research. So he will be able to take the response from a small number of respondents taken from the large population. The financial constraint is another limitation for the researcher as any research involves a huge amount of expenditure (Riff, Lacy & Fico, 2014). Other limitations are the collection of proper data from the respondents and the unwillingness of the respondents in giving proper feedback about the topic.  

Literature Review

The toddlers and the infants need to undergo an array of clinical as well as preventive services that are being designed to give an optimal start to a healthy life. The health care and the health of the children including the toddlers and the infants may be improved through the process of timely delivery of accurate and complete information. According to Klin, Shultz and Jones (2015), a biological system framework helps to bridge any gaps between the genes of the children and the toddlers and the symptoms. This framework puts the focus on the basic socialization mechanisms that are emerging with respect to development and highly conservative regarding evolution. As per Green et al. (2014), Early Head Start (EHS) is a dual generational program that helps to serve the low-income families having toddlers and infants up to the age of three years and has been one of the largest programs funded by the federals of USA for the infants and the toddlers of the country. As per their research, the children in the EHS are less likely to have physical problems compared to those who belong to the control group. However, Phillips (2015) opined that the proper functioning of the civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system have strong associations with the improved outcomes of the health of the entire population including the infants and the toddlers to help them learn new things. As per Cortiella & Horowitz (2014), learning disabilities are not caused by hearing, visual or motor disabilities, emotional disturbance, limited proficiency for English, environmental and economic disadvantages, inadequate instruction and cultural factors. They have also stated that learning disabilities are real as well as permanent. It has also been discovered that some people are able to find out the learning disabilities of the children, especially the toddlers and the infants. However, Berninger. et al., (2017) have felt that the parental ratings of inattention are correlated with the measures of written language and not the oral language.

The children mainly the toddlers and the infants are facing difficulties related to learning. They try to use their strengths to hide the difficulties. This can be the usage of phenomenal auditory memory to avoid the problems of reading or taking any notes. The signs of learning difficulties appear before the infants or the toddlers learn to read or write. There are various types of learning difficulties and a child might be having more than one learning difficulty. There can be some indications that a toddler or an infant is having some learning difficulties. These are mispronunciations of words, poor spelling, reversals of letter and word, word substitutions and difficulties in copying of letters, words and shapes.  

Learning Disability

A child who is having a disability in learning is not able to process information properly in the same manner as that of a developing child of the similar ages. The processing means the hearing, touching, seeing, reading and smelling of anything that is able to send messages to the brains. The infants and the toddlers can have a sense of what is going on and are able to take actions accordingly.  The information may not flow properly to the brain and from the brain to the different parts of the body.

Models of disability

There are two contrasting approaches to disability, popularly known as opposing models (Haegele & Hodge, 2016). These models are medical and social. The medical model treats a disability as a mental or physical impairment of an individual and its social as well as personal consequences (Burr, 2015). This model treats the limitations faced by the people with disabilities as the results solely for their impairment. On the contrary, the social model treats disability as a relation between a person and his social environment. The exclusion of an individual with some specific physical and mental characteristics from the major domains of the social life is manifested in deliberate segregation as well as in an organized social activity that restricts the participation of the individual having disabilities.    

Types of learning difficulties 

There are various types of learning difficulties that the children face, mainly the infants and the toddlers.


In contrast to the popular beliefs, dyslexia is a disorder regarding language (Nijakowska & Kormos, 2016). This causes the children to reverse the letters. A direct relationship exists between the ability of a student to read as well as to spell and the spoken language. Children having dyslexia face challenges regarding reading, writing and spelling along with the challenges of understanding and expressing languages (Ellis, 2016). It has been estimated that around 80% of all disabilities are related to reading.


This refers to the difficulties regarding mathematics such as remembering various computing facts, learning concepts of time and money and computing (Ulfarsson. et al.,  2017). The symptoms change over time. The young children face problems regarding counting and have tendencies to misalign columns and reverse numbers. These affect the functional skills such as counting money, measuring things or playing board games.


This refers to the difficulties in writing. Handwriting is a very complicated process involving processing of information and expressing the thoughts on the paper. Children having dysgraphia struggle to organize numbers, letters and words (Berninger. et al., 2015).


Dyspraxia refers to the difficulties like grasping scissors, hand-eye coordination and controlling a pencil (Macintyre, 2015). Parents are able to observe these signs of dyspraxia in a toddler or infant who are unable to point or imitate. It even affects the some motor skills like sports or coordination in riding a bike.

Auditory Processing Disorder

Children having this disorder, face difficulties in interpreting the auditory information regarding language development and reading. There is a chance of detecting the disabilities of the students by the parents and the teachers by discriminating the words and sounds.

Sensory Processing Disorder

Learning disabilities affect the abilities of the brain to take any information, processing it and using it effectively for the purposes of writing, reading and following any instructions (Wigham. et al., 2015). The toddlers and the infants often have the sensory processing issues that are resulted to compounding the difficulties.  

Visual Processing Disorder

This type of disorder is related to the difficulties in interpreting the visual information with respect to mathematics, reading and writing. Children having these difficulties are facing problems in figuring out the similarities and dissimilarities in patterns or words.

There are certain ways to deal with the learning disabilities of the toddlers and the infants.

  1. A diagnosis can be relayed with compassion and an appropriate degree of hope for the parents and the child suffering from learning disabilities (Bögels, 2014). Researches have revealed that the way in which a process of diagnosis is explained to the parents of the toddlers and the infants are have a profound impact on the attitudes of the parents towards their children and the professionals.   
  2. The parents can be asked about how much and what type of communication is helpful for them and in building rapport with care and honesty.
  3. The parents can be encouraged to ask different types of questions and express their emotions.
  4. The parents must know the resources available in helping a child, mainly a toddler or an infant.
  5. The doctors or the teachers must determine the level of adjustment every time they communicate with the parents and try to assess what they are able to internalize and understand what have been discussed about the mitigation of problems of the children.
  6. The practice of participation by the parents needs to be reinforced in helping the children to learn and develop themselves.
  7. The inquiries of the parents must be answered immediately.
  8. The parental ascendance must be understood and accepted through the stages of adjustment as a part of the normal process and provide them support. Adjustment has the chance of speeding up the process of achieving acceptance.  It will help the educators and the personnel in gaining adequate knowledge and support the parents in the demanding tasks of fulfilling the needs of the children.  

The guidelines of learning 

The Texas Early Learning Council has presented certain guidelines for the infants and toddlers of Texas (Hockenberry & Wilson, 2014). There are learning guidelines for the Texas Pre-kindergarten children. The Steering Committee has worked with a group of 19 stakeholders for the development of the guidelines all across Texas. The Committee was divided into certain workgroups like Guidelines Development, Public Knowledge & Engagement and Workforce and Professional Development. Each of them has the onus of providing support to the proper development and implementation of the guidelines in Texas for the children, mainly the infants and the toddlers. The mission of the Committee is to engage in a collaborative and comprehensive manner in the development and effective implementation of the Guidelines. The vision of the committee ensures that the infants and the toddlers of Texas may grow and thrive in the families and in the communities. The Guidelines are based on some principles described below.

The Guidelines must be:

  • evidence-based
  • supportive in the differences in development and temperament
  • Useful for the parents of the infant and the toddlers and also the policymakers
  • Be inclusive and meet the needs of the infants as well as the toddlers with special needs
  • Sensitive to the culture of the family and the linguistic differences

Early intervention services

The early intervention services are typically a broad range of services that are targeted to help the children, mainly the toddlers and the infants who are having delays in development or some specific health conditions. The act of providing the services to the children at an early stage helps them to catch up things quickly and increase the chances of success in life and school as well. These interventions have been provided under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

The various kinds of intervention services available are described below.

  • Physical skills such as reaching, walking, crawling, building and drawing
  • Communication skills like talking, listening, and understanding others
  • Cognitive skills such as thinking, solving problems and learning
  • Sensory processing skills like handling of tastes, smells, sounds and textures
  • Social and emotional skills that comprises of playing and interacting with others

A toddler or an infant who qualifies the intervention program need to go through these below mentioned services.

People make home visits and interact with the children or the parents. There are other services as well like the psychological services, transportation, medical, nursing and nutrition services, social work services and hearing and vision services.

Assistive Technology for children

Researches have revealed that assistive technology has the capability to help the young children, mainly the toddlers and the infants with disabilities to learn the development skills (Sorbring, Molin & Löfgren-Mårtenson, 2017). It may help them in certain areas like communication skills, span of attention, fine and gross motor skills, interdependence and self confidence and social skills that take into inclusion the taking turns and sharing. The correct type of assistive technology is able to improve the ability of a child to communicate. This in turn, will help in mitigation of some negative behaviors. Some of the examples of common assistive technology devices are computers, computer software and communication devices (Ahmad, 2015).

Types of assistive devices

There are basically two main types of assistive technology devices that are used by the infants and the toddlers (Akyurek. et al., 2017). These are augmentative communication devices and switches. Switches are used with toys that are battery-operated and give the infants the opportunities to play with them. When the infant touches the toy every time, it snorts and wiggles. Switches can be used to turn them on and off. Toddlers will be able to learn to press the switch in turning the devices on or usage of interactive devices. Children who are having the disabilities will also be able to use the switches. A switch is generally placed next to the infant’s head and every time he moves his head to the left or right, a musical mobile hanging overhead is played.

Augmentative communication materials help the young children, who are unable to speak and communicate with the world (Costello, Santiago & Blackstone, 2015). These devices are generally very simple such as pointing to a photo on a board. They can be complicated such as presenting message buttons on the devices that can activate pre-recorded messages.

Assistive technology is important as most of the skills are learned in the infancy and help the toddlers and the infants having disabilities, to learn many vital and crucial development skills (Roth. wt al., 2016). The technology helps them to learn the same things as that of non-disabled children but in a different way. The communications skills are very important for the children who are suffering from disabilities since most of the things an infant or a toddler learns is about interacting with each other (Sousa, 2016). Assistive technology is also important since the expectations of an infant or a toddler increases as he grows up. Augmentative communication devices encourage a child to enhance the communication efforts and skills. The parents have a dream that their child will be diagnosed with the help of the assistive technology.  

Research Methodology

Research methodology deals with the different types of techniques and the methods of the research. Research methodology can also be stated as a systematic process that helps in conducting the whole process of research in an organized and systematic manner. Research methodology has a contribution in the understanding of the different techniques of research. A research method may be described as the structured process of research.

Design Science:

In case of the design research process sculpt, it is stated being difficult from the equivalent model of design process that contributes new and true knowledge to be the main focus of the research through design science.

Awareness of Problem: An understanding of one of the research problems like the learning disability might be coming from numerous sources. Reading in a related discipline may offer the prospect for the application of fresh findings within the field of the researcher.

Suggestion: The phase of suggestion pursues on immediate basis behind the proposal and is confidentially associated with it as the scattered line around the Proposal and the Tentative Design (the output of the proposition phase). Indeed in any of the formal proposal for research of design science like the learning disability among toddlers and infants in Texas, or an industry sponsor, a Tentative Design and likely the presentation of an archetype based on that particular design which would be a fundamental part of the proposal. Suggestion is fundamentally one of the creative steps wherein the fresh functionalities are being envisioned based on the novel configuration.

Development: The tentative design is being improved and implemented within this phase. The implementation techniques would be of varying nature, based on the generation of artifacts. Design Science has been working in developing certain infrastructures of technology that would be complex in addressing the challenges of learning disabilities among infants.

Evaluation: Once it is being constructed, the artifact about the learning disability among toddlers and infants is being monitored and is regularly being made explicit within the Proposal. Deviations from the expectations, the qualitative and quantitative are carefully being prominent and must be described tentatively. On rare occasions, researches pertaining design science are the initial hypothesis concerned with the behavior being completely borne out. Rather, the results from the evaluation phase along with the added information expanded in the edifice and running of the artifact that is being brought together and supplied back for another round of Suggestion.

Conclusion: This might be the last phase with research cycle or in other words the finale of the research effort. The finale of this research effort on learning disability of infants and toddlers is mainly the result of the satisfying, which states that there are silent deviations within the behavior of the artifacts from the several revised predictions of hypothesis, the results are being adjudged to be ‘good enough’. It generally depends on the knowledge contribution type along with the state of the knowledge in the area of research which is learning disability within toddlers and infants, the anticipation on the temperament and intensity of the contribution of the outputs of knowledge contribution can differ.

Types of investigation

There are typically three types of study of research. These are described as exploratory, hypothesis testing and descriptive research. Exploratory research design is one that assists the researcher when he is not having any clear idea or very less idea about the particular research topic (Eriksson & Kovalainen, 2015). This research study will help in conducting the research with the help of some scientific viewpoint.    

On the other hand, descriptive research study helps in the contribution of conducting the research study with the help of relevant concepts and theories (Algozzine & Hancock, 2016). These help in linking the particular research topic with the appropriate models and theories.

However, a researcher needs to fix the hypothesis initially in the hypothesis testing research method. The researcher is then responsible for the analysis of relevant theories with respect to the relevant principles and models.

This research study shall take into consideration descriptive research study for the thorough the analysis of the relevant topic.     

Research Worldview

The research worldview takes into consideration the different research philosophies like post-positivism, constructivism, realism, advocacy and pragmatism (Azadi. et al., 2016). The research philosophy helps the researcher to derive essential and pertinent knowledge in relation with the research.

Constructivism is recognition of the reality that is a product of the human intelligence and related to cognitive psychology (Grossmann, 2017). Pragmatism is the combination of the qualitative and quantitative research (Flick, 2014). Advocacy research is done to provide evidence as well as arguments that are used to provide support to a cause or topic (Padgett, 2016). Realism is a longitudinal study. Post-positivism study takes into account once the philosophy of positivism has been established. This will assist the researcher in checking the genuineness of the data collected.  

The researcher can take the help of the post-positivism research philosophy where he will be able to take the responses and the views of the respondents through close-ended questionnaires and surveys. The method of data analysis will be descriptive and inferential. This type of research philosophy is taken as surveys will help to get the proper responses of the parents of the children who are suffering from learning disabilities and the teachers of different schools.  

Research Design

The research study will take into account the descriptive research design which will be best suited for the research. Quantitative research will be conducted so that research will be focused and conclusive. The hypothesis will be narrow.

Research Strategy

The strategy for the research will be through surveys and questionnaires and the analysis will be done accordingly. The questions in the questionnaire may be open-ended as well as closed ended. There are two types of research approaches. They are inductive and deductive. The inductive approach of research follows observation, data analysis, and collection of data from primary and secondary sources and establishment of the theories (Ary. et al., 2013). Deductive approach on the other hand, defines the selection of necessary theories, hypothesis testing, data analysis and implementation of the relevant theories for the analysis of the data and confirming the theoretical evidences (Glaser, 2017). The approach of the research for this topic will be deductive or the top down approach where conclusions will be drawn from the theories that are already there and the data will be matched with them.

Method of Data Collection

For the conduction of a research process, several data is required. The data to be collected for a research are of two types, primary and secondary. Primary data is referred to as the data that are collected from the surveys, interviews and questionnaires (Fallon, 2016). These types of data are collected from the respondents after asking them some questions about the relevant topic. Secondary data, on the other hand, can be collected from the various sources like journals, articles, relevant books and websites. There may be some problems regarding the collection of data in the primary research as many people may not become interested in giving their opinions about the relevant topic (Collis & Hussey, 2013).

For the research, data will be collected from both the primary as well as the secondary sources. The primary data collection source will be questionnaires through which questions will be asked to the respondents about the different information systems that can help the children in curing the learning disabilities. The information will be taken from the different theories about the learning disabilities.

Method of Data Analysis

The method of data analysis for the study will be descriptive and inferential.


A population of the respondents that will be selected for conducting a field survey and getting the opinions and responses about the relevant topic will be the parents of the children who are facing problems regarding learning disabilities and the teachers of the different schools. The population will be taken from Texas to know about the information systems that can help the children in getting rid of the learning disabilities. The sample will be too small for getting the right responses for the research study as time is a constraint.  


Sampling is a very important part of research (Levy & Lemeshow, 2013). A sample of 100 respondents will be selected from the entire population of Texas. This sample will be comprised of the parents of the children who are suffering from learning disabilities and the teachers who are teaching the children. The samples may also consist of the doctors who will be treating the children, the toddlers and the infants. They will be able to provide detailed knowledge about the information systems that help in treating the children. The validity as well as reliability of the data will be maintained in selecting the right sample for the research. The sampling method that will be used in this research will be non-probabilistic and it will be suitable. It will help in reduction of the deviation of the responses that will be collected from the primary data collection methods.

Time Chart (Gantt chart)










Choosing topic









Literature Review

















Research Design and Methods



























Recommendation and Conclusion









Submission of Research Draft









Submission of Final Project










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