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CCJ 221 Criminology

Published : 12-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10


After your report was presented to the Centervale chief of police, he realized there is a need for training for law enforcement officials. Using the Simpson case as the basis, a proposal was presented and approved by the mayor to fund a special project.

You have been asked to produce a written training curriculum to educate the trainers of Centervale's law enforcement officials about dealing with crime victims. The chief has asked you to cover both stranger violence and intimate violence. Your curriculum will supply trainers with information that would assist them in training new recruits, first responders, and detectives.

Prepare three short scenarios that could be used as training material. In the training material, include the three areas of stalking, intimate violence, and stranger violence.

Following each scenario, generate questions that the trainers could present. Be sure to offer answers to these questions, with support, as a handy guide for the trainers.

Finally, design a summary for the trainers that they can use to end their training. The summary should:

Highlight the differences between criminology and victimology and why it is important for law enforcement officials to have a basic knowledge of both. Use examples from your created scenarios as support. Identify the relevant theories that pertain to violence against women. How can law enforcement make use of these facts?

Explain the importance of law enforcement learning more about proper treatment of victims in order to ensure the system does not revictimize them. Consider how interviews, order of protection service, time until arrest, safety planning, and lethality assessments play into this treatment.
Create a curriculum:

Develop three to five questions for each scenario. Focus on relevant victimology or criminology theories, victims' rights, lethality assessments, and proper treatment of victims.

Develop potential answers for those questions, including the reasoning behind those answers. Hypothesize how past inadequacies in victims' rights, as they pertain to law enforcement, might have led to different endings to the scenarios.

Predict the danger level for each victim and connect to the necessary actions of the advocate or the detective that will come from this alert.

Create a solution that would properly treat victims in order to ensure the system does not revictimize them. In creating a solution, consider these questions:

What can you recommend should be done for the victim?

What can you recommend should be done to the suspect?

What resources are available to assist law enforcement in working with victims?



It is important that Centerville law enforcement officials be at par with the laws and regulations required to protect the citizen. Our job is to provide adequate security and to protect all citizens as required by the law. We should, therefore, be well educated and informed about the laws that protect each and every individual, it is our responsibility to work together to help the victims of crime and violence of any form. It is our duty and mandate to investigate and make sure that the victims of all forms of crime are treated well according to the law and that they are not violated off any of their rights (Fisher & Lab, 2010). The main agenda of this training is to educate and create awareness on our conduct and behavior to the victims of crime and to find solutions as to how we can adjust our approach and handling of these victims. A victim of crime is someone who has suffered mental, emotional harm or socioeconomic loss caused directly by a criminal offense (Chen & Einat, 2015). We need to know that victims of violence are vulnerable and when they ask for our assistance as police we should not withhold the help they need from us by following the right protocol right from the investigation. Criminology is the study of law enforcement and criminal justice system while victimology is the study of victims of crime, the psychological effect on the victims and their relationship to their offenders.

Scenarios illustrating on different types of violence

Scenario 1

It’s been close to two months now that Mary has been constantly receiving anonymous phone calls and text messages of a threat with an unknown person, she recently found a picture of her and her five-year-old daughter taken during her vacation slipped under her door. She is very afraid and believes that someone unknown to her has been following her. She decides to report to you as a police officer at Centerville.

1.What would you first do as the police attending to the victim? The first approach is to take in the victims and make them feel safe because they are vulnerable.

2. How sure are you that Mary is saying the truth? When a victim of crime reports to the police, the police should take time and study them when they are narrating the incident and on the other hand, the police should look for the offender and get their side of the story.

3. How can you keep the victim safe from the offender after reporting? The police should give advice to the victim on the measures to take to avoid the offender, the victim should have the emergency numbers, change door locks and to generally change their normal way of doing things that confuses the offender.

Scenario 2

 Jasmine is a grade 6 English teacher, she has two adorable kids, his son Bruno who is 10 years old and Peggy who is 8 years old. Jasmine divorced her husband 3 years ago and she has been doing great. The reason for her divorce was constant emotional, physical and psychological violence from her husband who owned a small garage uptown. After the divorce, she moved to another city with her two kids where she is currently working. His ex-husband has traced him and knows where she lives, he has attempted to rape her twice, and every time she defended herself he brutally hit her. This has happened for close to two months now and jasmine decided to report after the last incident where he burnt down part of her house and even sexually assaulted her.

1. Is it right for the police to ask the victim about the incident without identification? The police are supposed to be seen as the only person who can be trusted with the information that the victim is about to say, so as a police officer handling such a case it’s important that you go with documents of identification as a police officer with other information about your workstation.

2. Is it right for you to make a fast judgment before listening to the victim and the offender? It is the police job to do thorough investigations before making any judgment on both the victim and the accused because they all have the right to a rightful hearing.

3. What kind of offense is portrayed in this scenario? This scenario displays intimate violence. This kind of violence can be verbal, physical, emotional, and economical it often affects the victim, emotionally, psychologically, and physically (Hale, Hayward, Wahidin & Wincup, 2013).

Scenario 3

 Angie runs her own coffee shop in a quite busy town, she has told her friend about the recent attacks she had an unknown identity while on her way home from work. She says that the anonymous person was wearing a mask and it wasn’t easy to physically identify the person. She says it’s the second incident in a span of a week, she says that the attacker was armed with a weapon. She says “he had a gun on his left hand and he pulled me closer showing me the gun and telling me to cooperate, he then took my bag which had my belongings, almost pulled the trigger and told me to disappear as fast as I could”. The second time he forcefully pulled me at the back of his car sexually assaulted me and told me it’s not yet over.

1. Is it right for Angie to go for some tests if required as evidence for her case? The police should advise Angie that sometimes she has to go through such kind of tests to help the police in the investigation of the matter and filling the evidence.

3. Should the police arrest the offender before all evidence is collected? Yes, it’s important that the police issues a warrant of arrest to the suspect if the evidence shows the relation of the offender to the crime committed.

Social Learning Theory

This theory argues that family violence arises because of a lot of environmental and situational factors. The environmental factors include individual/couple features, stress, violent in the family or ends an aggressive personality while situational factors include financial difficulties and substance abuse (Case, 2017). These theory extents these factors to influence the young children growing up in these situations. Despite the fact that there are other factors leading to different actions and crimes being committed, doesn’t give the offenders the opportunity to commit the crimes. The reason for having this training is to make sure that every one of you takes responsibility to understand the victims’ rights and how to treat them. This theory shows that there are those crimes committed because of the background and the environments and families that people are brought up meaning that children brought up in this kind of families are likely to commit crimes (Petherick, Turvey & Ferguson, 2010). The police, therefore, should have an understanding of both criminology and victimology and learn how to deal with victims of crime (stalking, intimate violence, and stranger) (Glass, 2006).

 First of all the victims need to feel safe, this is because at this point the victims are very vulnerable, having been emotional, physically and even psychologically tortured or abused. Introduce yourself to the victims and let them know your intentions, make them feel comfortable and secure before asking them any question. If they feel comfortable you can ask them to describe what happened during the incidents. Try to contact their family members and reassure their safety by giving them contact information in case of anything while the investigation is underway (Sette, 2010).

 The victims need to express their emotions, you have to understand that these victims are going through various pain, do not harass them or use harsh words or even intimidated them. Instead try to be with them at the same level, giving them all the time they need to calm down and talk to them when they are ready to talk. This way you will be able to read the gestures or nonverbal body language and u will be able to relate to what the complainant is saying and how they are feeling.

There are laws which most of the police officers have often abused that helps the victims of crime, for example, right to information, right to protection, right to participation and right to restitution among others. If the police officers also follow the law on how to handle matters pertaining to the victim of violence then there would be change on the relationship between the police and the victims and in return, they will gain their trust to handle their issues in a more appropriate and respectable way (Siegel, 2011).

The legal to follow when investigating a crime

The first legal process is reporting a crime, this enables us as the law enforcers to start investigations into the matter before valuable evidence is destroyed.

 The second step is an investigation, at this stage, the police officer starts investigating into the matter to find its possible cause and this involves both the complainant and the police for the purpose of getting valuable evidence for the complainants’ case.

  The third stage is recording the effects of the crime. At this stage the police are required to help the victim record injuries, loses, taking photographs could also be useful to help the victim as it is the first step in preparing the victim impact statement.

The fourth one is laying the charges, this is the stage where a police make charges for more serious matters and may seek help from the director of public prosecution before laying the initial change.

 After this stage, the prosecute takes charge of the case and depending on the evidence provided the offender may be bailed or prosecuted. All these will depend on the collected evidence and proof of the crime committed.


 Law enforcers are tasked with a critical responsibility in ensuring justice as well as address cases of violence. Training on the proper treatment of victims promotes the basis for addressing scenarios where individuals face negative treatment from the police. Proper treatment of victims serves as the first step to achieving justice as well as promoting understanding of different criminal cases. Police are expected to understand the difference between criminology and victimology which influences their actions towards offenders in different cases.


Case, S. (2017). Criminology. Oxford University Press.

Chen, G., & Einat, T. (2015). The relationship between criminology studies and punitive attitudes. European Journal of Criminology, 12(2), 169-187.

Fisher, B., & Lab, S. P. (2010). Encyclopedia of victimology and crime prevention. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.

Glass, D. (2006). Stalking the stalker: Fighting back with high-tech gadgets and low-tech know- how. New York: iUniverse.

Hale, C., Hayward, K., Wahidin, A., & Wincup, E. (2013). Criminology.

Petherick, W., Turvey, B. E., & Ferguson, C. E. (2010). Forensic criminology. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Sette, R. (2010). Cases on technologies for teaching criminology and victimology: Methodologies and practices. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology: The core. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

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