Human resource management is defined as the management of the human resources that is intended to maximize the performance of the employees in the organization, to achieve organizational success. Managing of the human resource includes management of the compensation of the employees, their safety, benefits, organizational developments as well as assessing the training needs of each of the employees. Various researchers such as McGregor, Smith, Maslow, Owen have contributed to the field of human resource management. This assignment focuses on the contribution of Maslow in the field of human resource management. The relationship to the field of HRM with the Maslow’s employee motivation theory has been highlighted in this assignment.
Maslow’s contribution to the field of human resources management highlights the hierarchy of needs of the employees in any organization. This is a motivational theory that comprises of the five needs of any employee, that needs to be fulfilled, which eventually motivates the employee to work diligently in fulfilling the organizational needs. Maslow’s research mainly focused on the rewards of unconscious desires that act as motivation for the employees (Jerome 2013). Maslow believed that employees are motivated to achieve their goals, in order to fulfil certain needs. The hierarchy of needs as seen by Maslow is described below:
Physiological needs: The lowest level of the hierarchy on needs is the physiological needs. This includes the basic needs of human beings such as food, shelter, clothing, air, water and rest. These are the basic needs that have to be fulfilled and cannot be postponed for long. These basic needs have to be fulfilled by the employer, in order to achieve the required performance of the employees (Lester 2013). Until and unless the basic needs of the employees are fulfilled, the other needs do not motivate the employees. For example, a person in need of sleep or hungry cannot successfully work towards achievement of the organizational goals. Hence, in order to motivate the employees, the physiological needs are to be fulfilled.
Safety needs: Once the basic needs of a person are fulfilled, the needs need includes safety needs. This includes the psychological fear of losing the job, physical fear of meeting with an accident, while at the workplace (Jerome 2013). An employee needs to be ensured of protection from all kinds of fears, be it physical or psychological. An employer needs to ensure that the workplace is safe enough, for the employee to work without any fear. Insurance coverage for the employees as a retirement plan should be included, such that the safety needs could be fulfilled. As the employees receive the assurance of safety, they are motivated to work diligently and align with the organizational goals.
Social needs: The social needs include the need for interpersonal relationship. The need for belongingness and friendship are among the essential needs of a person. The need for friendship and family life has to be fulfilled by the employer. The social needs include a health and effective interpersonal relationship among the colleagues. Large social groups might include co-workers, professional organization. The social connections include family members, mentors, and friends (Lester 2013). Lack of fulfillment of the social needs might result in loneliness, social exclusion, and clinical depression. Thus, in order to motivate the employees effectively, the love and belongingness needs have to be fulfilled. The employer needs to ensure that the social needs of the employees are fulfilled (Jerome 2013).
Esteem needs: Once the social or belongings needs are fulfilled, the need for self esteem is to be fulfilled. All employees need respect from their colleges, juniors and seniors, in order to fulfill their esteem needs. Self-esteem is also essential along with being respected by others. Self-esteem includes, self confidence, self –respect as well as competence to work successfully. The employer needs to ensure that the working environment provided promotes self esteem among the employees (Jerome 2013). The esteem needs are also fulfilled by recognition at workplace, reputation, as well as schemes such as appraisal and incentives. Thus, the employer has to take care, such that the esteem needs of the employees are fulfilled successfully, such that they are motivated to work, and produce effective results.
Self-actualization: According to Maslow, the motivation among the human beings is based on the fulfillment of the needs and personal as well as professional growth. The self-actualization needs might be interpreted differently by different people. For some of the employees in an organization, self – actualization refers to the urge for personal growth (Lester 2013). In order to fulfill the needs of self actualization, the full potential of the employees are to be explored successfully. Self actualization also includes self transcendence. This refers to criticism of the own vision and mission of a person. The employer needs to ensure that the self-actualization needs are fulfilled successfully.
Thus, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs focuses on the various needs that are to be fulfilled to motivate the employees successfully. Maslow’s contribution towards the human resource management is immense and the motivational theory acts as a guideline for the employers and the employees. The various roles of the human resource management team such as understanding the training needs of the employees, giving the right compensation to the employees are also included in the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The organizational development is also associated with this theory, as the organizational development is possible only if the employees are motivated effectively.
Human resource management is an essential activity in any organization. Various theories such as the Maslow’s theory of needs are used as a guideline for the human resource team to achieve organizational developments. Maslow’s contribution has a significant importance in the field of HRM and enhances the working of the human resource team. Effective HRM activities results in maximization of the organizational developmental activities. The employee satisfaction and employee retention is also achieved by abiding to the Maslow’s theory of needs. The importance of the fulfillment of the various needs have also been highlighted in this assignment.
Jerome, N., 2013. Application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee’s performance. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(3), pp.39-45.
Lester, D., 2013. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychological Reports, 113(1), pp.15-17.
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