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BUS209 Organizational Behavior

Published : 08-Sep,2021  |  Views : 10

Questions:

This semester you studied a variety of topics relating to five core aspects of organizational behavior: 

A. Basic Human Processes:
 
• Perception and Learning
 
• Individual Differences: Personality, Skills and Abilities
 
• Coping with Organizational Life: Emotions and Stress
 
B. Individual Processes:
 
• Work-Related Attitudes
 
• Motivation in Organizations
 
• Communication in Organizations
 
C. Interpersonal Processes
 
• Group Dynamics and Work Teams
 
• Decision Making in Organizations
 
• Conflict, Cooperation, Trust and Deviance
 
D. Influence Processes:
 
• Power: Its Uses and Abuses in an Organization
 
• Leadership in Organizations
 
E. Organizational Processes:
 
• Organizational Culture, Creativity and Innovation
 
• Managing Organizational Change

Answers:

A: Basic Human Processes

Coping with Organizational Life: Emotions and Stress

The concept of stress is not that visible in the Asian countries but is widely prevalent in Europe and North America. The primary reason for stress is the demand to choose a better career so that it can help in supporting the family of the individual. According to a survey that was conducted by Dataquest, it was concluded that stress arises due to two main reasons. The first one being the time taken to travel and the amount of time off that the individual can get from the companies. It was seen that Microsoft was voted the best company to work with due to its ability to manage stress. The employees of the company have a broadband connection that is free, which helps them in telecommuting so that they can share their jobs with other employees (Humphrey, Ashford & Diefendorff, 2015).

Emotions on the other hand is the way one expresses their feelings about a particular event. There has to be some object, which will help in triggering the emotional side of the individuals. A key factor of emotions is that it tends to spread on a faster rate and is contagious in nature. It gets carried from one person to another, which helps in sharing the emotions of an individual. This nature is applicable in a job, where the employees tend to have the same kind of emotions, which is possessed by one of them. The portrayal of emotions is almost the same and is universal in nature for all individuals who expresses it with the same kind of facial expressions. The expressing of emotions is linked with the cultural backgrounds of the individuals and the place from where the individual actually belongs (Cooper & Quick, 2017).

The causes that helps in developing the stress in a workplace are the occupational demands, where the making of decisions play an integral part. The decisions have to be based on the devices or the materials that are being constantly monitored, which increases the chance of stress. The higher the level of an individual in the workplace, the higher is the chance of developing workplace stress in an organization. Another cause of stress is the harassment that many employees face sexually, which is the unwanted mode of communication in an organization. It is difficult to concentrate on the work when some other employee is constantly trying to get the unwanted attention within the workplace. These can lead to severe bouts of illness, which can be physical and mental (Grant, Berg & Cable, 2014).

To reduce stress in the workplace, the companies need to take up certain stress management programs, which will help in reducing the stress of the employees. wellness programs can be initiated by the companies so that the employees can reduce their stress level and keep their body and mind in a healthy condition. The individuals can manage stress themselves by dividing up their time in a wise manner between work and life. The diet of the people needs to change that will help the individuals to take good rest by sleeping for the appropriate number of hours in a day (Goleman, Boyatzis & McKee, 2013).

B: Individual Processes

Motivation in Organizations

The organizations in the present world are facing difficulties in motivating their employees so that they can perform their best in the task that has been allotted to them. The companies need to adopt effective management styles that will help them in providing motivation to the employees. one of the common modes of motivator in the present world is the sense of acknowledgement that the employees want to get by participating in various tasks that the companies provide so that they get easily recognized by the management. This phenomenon is known as empowerment, which is a process through which the employees are given powers by the managers so that they can achieve the goals of the organization along with their personal goals. Empowerment helps the employees in achieving the targets of the organization and helps them in being motivated and productive in the workplace (Pinder, 2014).

This can be explained by the content and progress theories that was published during the 1950s. the content theory helps in explaining the factors, which stimulates the employees of an organization by identifying their needs and providing them the motivation so that they can perform in a better manner within the organization to increase the level of productivity. The process theory on the other hand helps in examining the decision of the individuals so that action can be taken within the organization. the main focus of this theory is the beliefs and the performance of the employees that will help them in getting recognized and earning rewards in the organization (Miner, 2015).

The managers of the organization still follow the Theory of Hierarchical Needs, which was explained by Maslow in the 1950s. The theory helps in identifying the various factors that help in motivating the employees in the organization by providing the employees proper training so that they can develop themselves in an organized manner. The two strategies that help in identifying the needs of the employees can be classified under lower order and higher order. The needs of the lower order are basic in nature, which is inclusive of the physiological needs such as food and water that comprises of the basic needs of the humans. The higher order needs that the people look for are the top positions in the company so that they can be respectable in the society (Lazaroiu, 2015).  

Managers have to follow these theories so that they can provide motivation to the employees by providing them rewards, which are based on intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. These rewards systems will help the employees in working in a productive way so that they can be productive within the organization. The high level of productive output by the employees will help the company in reaching its target and stay at the best position in the competitive commodity market of the present world (Greenberg, 2013).

C: Interpersonal Processes

Decision Making in Organizations

The management of an organization requires planning at a skillful level so that ijt can help the strategies in business to be executed in a proper manner. The decisions that are taken for an organization helps them in attaining their long-term objectives that the company has. The main aim of making proper decisions by the top management is to come up with strategies that will help in the elimination of the competitors that are present in the market. These decisions that are taken up by the management of the companies or the organization help them in producing the products or the services in a better way so that the consumers can purchase it and increase the rate of profit for the company (Pettigrew, 2014).

 From the point of view of an organization, making of decision is very important by assessing the informations that have been provide to the company at the right time. These informations help the company to make decisions in a better manner. The business in the modern world may make errors on a strategical way if the decisions that they make for the company goes wrong. Another factor that affects the decisions in the organization is the accuracy of the information that is provided to the organization. there are asymmetries of information, which is the identification of the misinformation that may lead to disastrous decision making in the organization. if these decisions are implemented in the workplace then it would result in low productivity levels for which the company may suffer in the highly competitive marketing environment. The reliable information has to be provided to the organization so that the decisions can be made, which will help in solving the problems that are present within the organization (Ford & Richardson, 2013).

The people who are responsible for making the decisions will achieve success if the decisions that they make are followed by the employees and its impacts are felt in the organization. the individual decision-making process is done based on the behavior of the individual and by questioning the people. It helps in making prompt decisions, which saves time within the organization. they become responsible for the decisions that they make and are accountable for the performance that they carry out in the organization (Laureiro-Martinez et al., 2015). The decisions that are done are logical and keeps its focus more on the matter, which helps it to be rational in nature. The decisions that are taken on the corporate level helps the organization to function at the various levels such as from top to bottom. These decisions are done at the higher levels of management and it is passed down the hierarchy so that the subordinates can follow it and implement it in the workplace. These decisions have a feedback level as well, where the employees give their reviews about the changes that have taken place and its impact be it positive or negative, in the work culture within the organization (Betsch & Haberstroh, 2014).  

D: Influence Processes

Leadership in Organizations

A leader is a person who through the efficient use of his interpersonal skills helps in influencing other individuals so they can achieve a set of goals together. Leadership is a process that acts as a guidance and a source of motivation so that the employees can achieve a set of predetermined targets (Bolman & Deal, 2017).

Leadership is of different styles such as transformational leadership, which happens when the leader provides motivation to their groups by influencing radical changes and pointing the group towards the right direction so that the target can be achieved in an easier manner. The personal interests of the employees are set aside so that the group acts as a team and try to achieve their target with the help of each other. Transactional leadership is another method where the leaders understand the basic needs of its group members in the organization and tries to enhance their performance by providing them incentives so that the individual output increases. It helps in maintaining balance and equilibrium so that the group members can work according to the policies and the procedures, which will help them in focusing on their interpersonal level of dependence in the organization (Gordon, 2017). The principles of shared leadership is based on the transformational and the participative styles of leadership. The elements that constitute of this leadership style are partnership, boundaries and the dialogues that are exchanged between the groups. This type of leadership techniques is used in organizations, which has a work force that is dedicated towards the organization and are highly skilled and can work with different leaders at a given point of time. The autocratic style of leadership gives full control to the leaders in the decision-making process and the employees have to abide by it, failing which can attract penalties. The democratic leadership style helps in motivating the employees internally within the organization and the decisions that are taken for the organization is made with active participation of the employees (Avolio, 2014).

The leadership becomes effective in nature when the management tries to develop the strategies, which will have a competitive advantage on improving the performance of the organization. An example of this would be that transactional style of leadership would prove to be beneficial in nature for the organization because it helps in achieving the current objectives through better performance level of the employees, which is assisted by rewarding them. The employees have to be given proper training so that they become cost effective with the nature of their work and can adapt to the changes that are done by the leaders within the organization. Additionally, it will help by promoting healthy relationships with the workplace and make it a better environment to work in. The groups will become more focused on sharing the goals of the organization and continue to developing their knowledge through the learning processes constantly. The leaders who are bond with their group members on an empathetic level may help in increasing the effectiveness of the workers, as they try to associate the goals and the vision of the organization with themselves (Lu, 2014).

E: Organizational Processes

Managing Organizational Change

Changes in an organization is qa process through which the management tries to bring new innovations within the organization so that the productivity level can be increased. The stakeholders of the organization needs to be taken in to account before bringing the changes in the organization so that the level of risks associated with it can be evaluated before it is implemented in the workplace. For the change to be successful in nature, it requires team work of the employees and a collaborative approach so that the organization can achieve more than what it is achieving in its present situation. The changes in the organizations helps in building a strong base for the leaders in the organization to increase its productivity by proper planning of the strategies and gaining more knowledge of the local markets (Cameron & Green, 2015).

The changes in the organizations can be classified as content, process, contextual and criterion. The content issues are the changes, which identifies the effects and the causes that the employees have on the performance of the organization. The process changes helps in dealing with the actions, which help them in tackling the internal and the external problems of the organization. the contextual changes are those, which are done based on the conditions of the internal and the external environment. The criterion issues help in dealing with the outcomes that the organizations have related to the changes that are made within it (Benn, Dunphy & Griffiths, 2014).

Changes in the organization is needed because it helps in managing the competition by providing better insights regarding the competition that is present in the local market where the company is operating. It is also done so that new technology can replace the existing technologies that are present in the organization. This helps the organization to produce more outputs because of the efficient use of technology. The organization has to adapt to the changes that are made within it so that it can grab the opportunities with respect to resources in the present market. the changes will help the organization to increase its profits, as it will operate following the current trends that are present in the market (Anderson, 2016).   

The factors that lead to change in the organization are the performance of the employees. the employees have the responsibilities to process the inputs in to valuable outputs so that the company can earn profit in the market. The effectiveness and the efficiency of the employees can be increased by bringing changes in the organization on a constant manner. The companies need to evaluate the conditions that are present in the market and apply the changes accordingly so that it has a positive effect on the organization. The rules and regulations set by the government are changing on a daily basis and the companies need to adapt to it by changing their strategies as well, which will help to ensure that it operates in a smooth manner in the market (Cummings & Worley, 2014).

References

Anderson, D. L. (2016). Organization development: The process of leading organizational change. Sage Publications.

Avolio, B. J. (2014). Examining leadership and organizational behavior across the boundaries of science.

Benn, S., Dunphy, D., & Griffiths, A. (2014). Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.

Betsch, T., & Haberstroh, S. (Eds.). (2014). The routines of decision making. Psychology Press.

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cooper, C. L., & Quick, J. C. (Eds.). (2017). The Handbook of Stress and Health: A Guide to Research and Practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (2013). Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature. In Citation classics from the Journal of Business Ethics (pp. 19-44). Springer Netherlands.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2013). Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Press.

Gordon, G. (2017). Leadership as It Relates to Organizational Behavior and Performance. In Leadership through Trust (pp. 17-22). Springer International Publishing.

Grant, A. M., Berg, J. M., & Cable, D. M. (2014). Job titles as identity badges: How self-reflective titles can reduce emotional exhaustion. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4), 1201-1225.

Greenberg, J. (Ed.). (2013). Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Routledge.

Humphrey, R. H., Ashforth, B. E., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2015). The bright side of emotional labor. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(6), 749-769.

Laureiro?Martínez, D., Brusoni, S., Canessa, N., & Zollo, M. (2015). Understanding the exploration–exploitation dilemma: An fMRI study of attention control and decision?making performance. Strategic Management Journal, 36(3), 319-338.

Lazaroiu, G. (2015). Work Motivation and Organizational Behavior. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 7(2), 66.

Lu, X. (2014). Ethical leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating roles of cognitive and affective trust. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 42(3), 379-389.

Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.

Pettigrew, A. M. (2014). The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge.

Pinder, C. C. (2014). Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press.

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