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Conflict is a term used to describe perceived incompatibility that is caused by some type of intervention or opposition. Conflict management, then, is the use of tactics to positively resolve these perceived differences. Managers had been educated for decades to consider disagreement as a negative factor. Conflict, on the other hand, can be either constructive or dysfunctional. Functional conflict, in contrast to dysfunctional conflict, which is disruptive and leads to lower productivity, may actually inspire more work effort and improve task performance. "We have learned to realise and acknowledge the benefits coping with conflict gives," Borisoff and Victor (1998) write. We interact, we are challenged, and we are inspired to discover creative solutions to challenges because of our diversity.
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Course ID: BUS403
University Name: Saylor University
Study Level: Undergraduate
Location: Washington DC
The early approach to conflict resolution was founded on the notion that all conflict was negative and would always work against the organization's objectives. As a result, conflict management became associated with conflict avoidance. As a result, the persons involved in the disagreement were left with only one option: a win-lose situation. In such situations, the loser will feel betrayed, which will lead to increased hostility. As a result, most managers saw conflict as something they needed to remove from their workplace. During the later half of the nineteenth century, and until the mid-1940s, this avoidance method to conflict management was popular.
Despite this, conflict avoidance is not an effective method for resolving most conflicts. Conflict avoidance frequently leaves those who are avoided feeling ignored. Furthermore, conflict avoidance rarely succeeds in resolving the perceived differences that sparked the disagreement in the first place. As a result, the original source of the dispute persists unabated, held in check only until a new clash occurs, re-igniting the same unresolved tensions. As a result, conflict avoidance methods aren't particularly effective in the long run.
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From the late 1940s through the mid-1970s, the human relations approach to conflict resolution dominated. Conflict, according to this viewpoint, is a natural and unavoidable part of any organisational environment. Because conflict was seen as inescapable, the human relations approach advocated for conflict acceptance. In other words, disagreement is unavoidable and, in certain cases, beneficial to the organisation. According to Nurmi and Darling, the term "conflict management" was coined during this time period.
A fresh perspective on organisational conflict has arisen since the mid-1970s. The interactionist approach is a theoretical perspective. This perspective of view not only accepts but also encourages conflict. A conflict-free, harmonious, and cooperative organisation, according to theorists, tends to become stagnant and nonresponsive to market change and advancement. As a result, in order to sustain optimal organisational performance, managers must inject a minimum amount of tension. Shelton and Darling, for example, argue that conflict is an essential prerequisite for both individual and organisational growth. Managers are encouraged to "embrace disagreement and exploit it for continual transformation," according to the authors.
ASSESSMENT- The stakeholders participating in the evaluation step gather relevant information about the situation. The parties involved also decide which of the conflict-resolution modes is best suited to the circumstances. The parties decide what is and is not central to the situation as a group. The parties also specify areas where they might be ready to compromise, as well as what they really desire.
ATTITUDE- The attitude phase aims to lay the groundwork for avoiding pseudo-conflict. Stereotypical beliefs regarding various culturally based behaviors are debunked. A member of a high-context culture, for example, may mistake what a member of a low-context culture says as unnecessarily direct or even disrespectful. A member of a low-context culture, on the other hand, may mistake what a member of a high-context culture says as needlessly indirect or even deceitful. As Edward Hall's study has demonstrated, such communication variances have little to do with the messages' real aim or content, but rather represent culturally taught approaches to using implicit vs explicit communication techniques. In the same way, one acknowledges variations in the way men and women are conditioned to communicate in the attitude step. Experts like Borisoff and Merrill, for example, have identified distinct male and female communication styles, which are exacerbated by sex-trait stereotyping on topics like assertiveness, interruptive conduct, and politeness perceptions. Finally, one examines possibly problematic variances in writing, speaking, and nonverbal habits in the attitude stage. As a result of these distinctions, meanings may become muddled. The effective conflict participant's responsibility is to keep an open mind toward all parties involved.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT- Each party tries to hear out the other during the acknowledgment step. Acknowledgment allows both parties to develop the empathy required to motivate a collaborative solution to the situation. The acknowledgment serves as feedback to the other person, demonstrating that one understands (but does not necessarily agree with) the other's point of view. However, acknowledgment entails more than simply replying to what has been said; it also entails actively pushing the other party to freely share their concerns. Active listening strategies and overt, nonverbal encouragement can help with this.
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ACTION- The action stage entails putting the chosen conflict-resolution strategy into action. The manager transmits the chance for a conflict settlement based on trust and continued input on those issues on which the parties have previously agreed if the problem-solving technique is chosen. Simultaneously, each member assesses the other parties' conduct (sometimes in the form of subtle clues) in order to identify potential difficulty spots. Additionally, each person must be conscious of his or her own communication style and overall demeanour. Finally, all parties must remain vigilant in the face of new difficulties and seek out constructive solutions.
ANALYSIS- Participants decide what they will do in this final stage, then summarise and review what they have agreed on. Checking if all of the participants' needs have been met is an element of the analysis process (and met, if possible). Finally, the analytical step serves as a catalyst for addressing conflict resolution as a continuous process. Participants can use analysis to track both the short- and long-term outcomes of the conflict resolution process.
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